[Page] THE KINGDOMES Manifestation: WHEREIN A course may be taken for us and our posterity, to enjoy Peace and Truth together, with the propagation of the Gospell; with certaine considerations condusing thereunto.

Delivered in a speech BY IOHN PYM, Esquire: Once a worthy Member of the House of Commons, now deceased the eighth of December, 1643.

LONDON, Printed by B. H. and are to be sold by J. West, neere the New-Exchange. 1643.

A Declaration of the Grievances of the Kingdome, delivered in Parliament, by Iohn Pym ESQUIER.

NEver Parliament had greater businesses to The prece­dent consi­deration of grievances will furth or the supply. dispatch, nor more difficulties to encounter; ther­fore wee have reason to take all advantages of order and addresse, and hereby wee shall not only doe our owne worke, but dispose and inable our selves for the better satisfaction of His Majesties desire of supply. The grievances being removed, our affections will carry us with speed and cheerefulnesse, to give His Majestie that which may be sufficient both for his honour and support. Those that in first place shal endeavour to redresse the grievances, will be found not to hinder, but to be the furtherers of his Majesties service: hee that takes away weights, doth as much advantage motion, as hee that addeth wings.

Diverse pieces of this maine work have bin already propounded, Great works are first to be considered in the mo­dell. his endeavour should bee to present to the House a modell of the whole. In the Creation God made the world according to that Idea or form, which was eternally preexistent in the divine mind. Moses was commanded to frame the Tabernacle after the patterne shewed him in the Mount. Those actions are seldome well perfected in the execution, which are not first well moulded in the designe and pro­position.

He said, he would labour to contract those manifold affaires both of the Church and State, which did so earnestly require the wisdom A double method compounded of grievan­ces & cures. and faithfulnesse of this House, into a double method of grievances and cures: and occause there wanted not some who pretended, that these things wherewith the Common-Wealth is now grieved, are mu [...]h for the advantage of the King, and that the redresse of them will be to His Majesties great disadvantage and losse (hee said) hee Publike grievances disadvanta­gious to the King. doubted not but to make it appeare, that in discovering the present g [...]eat distempers and disorders, and procuring remedy for them, we should be no lesse serviceable to his Majestie, who hath summoned us to this [...] Councell, than usefull to those whom wee doe here [Page 2] represent: for the better effecting whereof, he propounded three The first generall di­vision. maine branch [...]s of his discourse.

1 In the first (hee said) hee would offer them the severall heads of some principall grievances, under which the Kingdome groaned.

2 In the second, he undertooke to prove, that the disorders from whence those grievances issued, were as hurtfull to the King as to the people.

3 In the third, he would advise s [...]ch a way of healing and remo­ving those grievances, as might be equally effectual to maintaine the honour and greatnesse of the King, and to procure the prosperity and contentment of the people.

In the handling whereof he promised to use such expressions as Sharp mat­ters to bee mitigated in the ex­pression. The K can do no wrōg. might mitigate the sh [...]rpenes and bitternes of those things whereof he was to speak, so far as his duty & faithfulnesse would allow. It is a great Prerogative to the K. and a great honour attributed to him in a Maxime of our Law, that he can doe no wrong, he is the foun­taine of Iustice, and if there be any injustice in the execution of his Commands, the Law casts it upon the Ministers, and frees the King. Activity, life, and vigour, are conveied into the sublunary creatures, by the influence of Heaven: but the malignity and distemper, the c [...]use of so many Epidemicall diseases, do proceed from the noysome vapours of the earth, or some ill affected qualities of the aire, with­out any infection or alteration of those pure, celestiall and incorrup­tible bodies. In the like manner (he said) the authority, the power and countenance of Princes may concurre in the actions of evill men, without partaking in the injustice and obliquitie of them. Hurtfull projects pre­sented to the King under plau­sible noti­ons. These matters where of we complaine, have bin presented to his Ma­jestie, either un [...]er the pretence of Royall Prerogatives, which he is bound to maintaine, or of publike good, which is the most honoura­ble object of Regall wisdome. But the covetous and ambitious de­signes of others, have in [...]erposed betwixt his Royall intentions, and the happines of his people, making those things pernicious and hurt­full, which his Majestie apprehended as just, and profitable.

He said, the things which he was to propound, were of a various A promise of modera­tion. nature, many of them such as required a very tender and exquisite consideration, In handling of which, as he would be bold to use the liberty of the place and relation wherein he stood, so hee would bee carefull to expresse that Modestie and humilitie, which might be ex­pected by those, of whose actions he was to speake. And if his judg­ment; Submission to reforma­tion. or his tongue should slip into a particular mistake, hee would not thinke it so great a shame, to faile by his owne weaknesse, as hee [Page 3] should esteem it an honour and advantage, to be corrected by the wis­dom of that house, to wc h be submitted himselfe, with this protesta­tion, that he desired no reformation so much as to reforme himselfe.

The greatest liberty of the kingdom, is Religion; Religion. thereby we are freed from spiritual evils: and no impositions are so grievous, as those that are laid upon the soule. The next great liberty, is Justice, Iustice. wherby we are preserved from injurie in our persons, and estates, from this is derived into the Common-wealth, peace, and order, and safety, and when this is interrupted, confusion and danger are ready to over-whelme all. The third great liberty consists in the power and pri­viledge Priviledge of Parlia­ment. of Parliaments, this is the fountaine of law, the great Coun­cell of the kingdom, the highest Court: this is inabled by the Legis­lative and Conciliary power, to prevent evils to come; by the Judi­ciary power, to suppresse and remove evils present. If you consider these three great liberties in the order of dignitie, this last is inferiour to the other two, as meanes are inferour to the end; but if you consi­der them in the order of necessity, and use, this may justly claime the The order propounded in handling these three great liber­ties. first place, in our care, because the end cannot be obtained without the means: if we do not preserve this, we cannot long hope to enjoy either of the other. Therefore (he said) being to speak of those grie­vances which lye upon the kingdome, he would observe this order.

  • 1. To mention those, which were against the priviledge of Par­liaments.
  • 2. Those which were prejudiciall to the Religion established in the Kingdome.
  • 3. Those which did interrupt the justice of the Realme, in the li­berty of our persons, and propriety of our estates.

The priviledges of Parliament were not given for the ornament The neces­sitie & im­portance of the privi­ledge of Parliament. or advantage of those, who are the members of Parliament, they have a reall use and efficacy, towards that which is the end of Parlia­ments: we are free from suits, that we may the more intirely addict our selves, to the publike services: we have therfore liberty of speech, that our Counsels may not bee corrupted with feare, or our judge­ments perverted with selfe respects: those three great faculties and functions of Parliament, the Legislative, Judiciary, and Consiliary power, can not be well exercised without such priviledges as these. The wisdome of our Lawes, the faithfulnesse of our Counsels, the righteousnesse of our judgments can hardly be kept pure and untain­ted, if they proceed from distracted and restrained mindes.

It is a good Rule of the Morall Philosopher, Et non laedas mentem gubernatricem omnium actionum: These powers of Parliament are [Page 4] to the body politike as the rationall faculties of the soule, to a man That which keepes all the parts of the Common-wealth in frame, and temper, ought to be most carefully preserved in that freedome, vigour, and activity, which belongs to it selfe. Our predecessors in this house, have ever bin most carefull in the first place, to settle and secure their priviledges: and (he said) he hoped that we having had greater breaches made upon us than heretofore, would bee no lesse tender of them, and forward in seeking reparation for that which is past, and prevention of the like for the time to come.

Particular breaches of priviledge Then he propounded diverse particular points wherein the Privi­ledge of Parliament had bin broken.

1 Restraint of speechFirst, in restraiaing the members of the House from speaking.

2 Interdict of questionsSecondly, in forbidding the Speaker to put any Question.

These two were practised the last day of the last Parliament (and, as was alledged, by his Majesties command) and both of them trench upon the very life and being of Parliaments, for if such a re­straining power as this should take root, and be admitted, it will be impossible for us to bring any resolution to perfection in such mat­ters as shall displease those about the King.

Imprison­ment of members. Thirdly, by imprisoning diverse Members of the House for mat­ters done in Parliament.

Iudiciall proceedingsFourthly, by indictments, informations, and judgments in ordi­nary & inferiour courts for speeches & proceedings in Parliaments

Order to be bound in the good behaviour.Fifthly, the disgracefull order of the Kings Bench, whereby some members of this House were injoyned to put in security of the good behaviour, and for refusall thereof, they were continued in prison, diverse years, without any particular allegation against them: one of them was freed by death, others not dismissed till his Majestie had declared his intention, to summon this Parliament. And this he noted not onely as a breach of priviledge, but as a violation of the common justice of the Kingdome.

Sixthly by the sudden and abrupt dissolution of Parliaments, con­trary Abrupt dis­solutions of Parliament. to the Law and custome. It hath bin often declared in Parlia­ments, that the Parliament should not be dissolved, till the petitions bee answered This (hee said) was a great grievance, because it doth prevent the redresse of other grievances. It were a hard case, that a private man should bee put to death without being heard: As this representative body of the Commons, receives a being by the sum­mons, so it receives a civill death by the dissolution. Is it not a much more heavie doome, by which we lose our being, and have this civill death inflicted on us, in displeasure, and not to be allowed time and [Page 5] liberty to answer for our selves? that we should not only dye, but have this marke of infamy laid upon us, to be made Intestabiles, dis­abled to make our wils, to dispose of our busines, as this House hath alwayes used to do, before Adjournments or dissolutions? yet this, hath often bin our case, we have not bin permitted to powre out our last sighes and groanes, into the bosome of our deare Soveraigne; the words of dying men are full of piercing affections : if we might be heard to speak, no doubt we shold so fully expresse our love, & faith fulnes to our Prince, as might take off the false suggestions & asper­sions of others: at least we should in our humble supplications, re­commend some such things to him in the name of his people as would make for his honour, and the publike good of his Kingdome.

Thus he concluded the first sort of grievances, being such as were against the priviledge of Parliament, and passed on to the next, con­cerning Religion: Grievances concerning Religion. all which he conveyed under the foure heads.

Incourage­ment of po­pery.1 The first, was the great incouragement given to popery, of which he produced these particular evidences.

Suspension of Lawes.1 A suspension of all Lawes against Papists, whereby they enjoy a free, and almost publike exercise of that Rel [...]gion, and those good Statutes which were made for restraint of Idolatry, and superstition, are now a ground of security to them, in the practice of both, being used to no other end, but to get money into the Kings purse: which as it is clearely against the intentions of the Law, so it is full of mis­chiefe to the Kingdome.

By this means a dangerous partie is cherished, and increased, who are ready to close with any opportunitie of disturbing the peace and safety of the State. Yet (he said) he did not desire any new lawes a­ga [...]nst popery, or any rigorous courses in the execution of those alrea­dy in force; he was far from seeking the ruine of their persons or e­states, onely hee wisht they might bee kept in such a condition, as should restraine them from doing hurt.

It may be objected, there are moderate and discreet men amongst There can be no secu­rity from papists. them, men of estates, such as have an interest in the peace and prosperity of the Kingdome, as well as we. These (he said) were not to be considered according to their owne disposition, but according to but In their dis­ability. the nature of the body, whereof they are parties. The Planets have severall and particular motions of their owne, yet they are all rapt and transported into a contrary course, by the superior Orbe which comprehends them all. The Principles of Popery are such, as are incompatible with any other RELIGION: there may bee a suspension of violence, for some by respects, [Page 6] out the ultimate end, even of that moderation, is, that they may with more advantage extirpate that which is opposite to them. Laws will not restraine them, oaths will not, the Pope can dispence with both these, and where there is occasion, his command wil act them, to the disturbance of the Realme, against their owne private disposition, yea, against their own reason and judgment to obey him, to whom they have (especially the Jesuiticall party) absolutely and intirely obliged themselves, not only in spirituall matters, but in temporall, as they are in order ad Spiritualia. H. the 3 d. and H. the 4 th. of France, were no Protestants themselves, yet were murthered, be­cause they tolerated the Protestants, by which and many other presi­dents it appeares, that the King, that the Kingdome can have no se­curity but in their weaknesse and disabilitie to doe hurt.

Admission into places of power. 2 A 2 d. incouragement is, their admission into places of power and trust in the Common-wealth, whereby they get many depen­dants and adherents, not only of their own, but even of such as make profession to be protestants.

Free resort to London & the court 3 A third, their freedome of resorting to London, and the Court, whereby they have opportunity, not only of Communicating their Counsels, and designes one to another, but of diving into his Maje­sties Counsels, by the frequent accesse of those who are active men, amongst them, to the tables and company of great men, and under subtile pretences and disguises, they want not meanes of cherishing their owne projects, and of indeavouring to mould and biasse the publike affaires to the great advantage of that partie.

4 A 4 th, that as they have a Congregation of Cardinals at Rome, to consider of the aptest wayes and means of establishing the Popes authority and Religion in England: so they have a Nuncio here, to act and dispose that party to the execution of those Counsels, and by the assistance of such cunning and Jesuiticall spirits as swarm in this towne, to order and mannage all actions, and events, to the furthe­rance of that maine end.

Innovations in matters of Religion 2 The second grievance in Religion, was from those manifold in­novations lately introduced into severall parts of the Kingdome, all inclining to Popery, and disposing and sitting men to entertaine it: the particulars are these.

Mainte­nance of po­pish tenets.1 Divers of the chiefest points of Religion in difference betwixt us and the Papists have bin publikely defended in licensed Books, in Sermons, in Vniversity acts and disputations.

Practice of popish cere­monies. 2 Diverse Popish Ceremonies have bin not only practised, but countenanced, yea little lesse than injoyned, as Altars, Images, Cru­cifixes, [Page 7] bowings, and other gestures and observances, which put upon our Churches a shape and face of popery. He compared this to the dry bones in Ezekiel, first they came together, then the sinewes and the fle [...]h came upon them, after this the skin covered them, and then breath and life was put into them: so (he said) after these men had moulded us into an outward forme and visage of popery, they would more boldly endeavour to breath into us the spirit & life of popery.

Preferment of men po­pishly incli­ned. Discourag­ment of true profes­sors. Inlargment of differen­ces among our selves. 3 The third grievance, was the countenancing and preferring those men, who were most forward in setting up such Innovations, the particul [...]rs were so well knowne, that they needed not to be named.

Discourag­ment of true profes­sors.4 The fourth was, the discouragement of those who were known to be most conscionable, and faithfull professors of the truth: some of the wayes of effecting this, he observed to be these.

Inlargment of differen­ces among our selves.1 The courses taken to inforce and inlarge those unhappy differen­ces, for matters of small moment, which have bin amongst our selves, and to raise up new occasions of further division, wherby many have bin induced to forsake the land, not seeing the end of those volunta­ry and humane Injunctions in things appertaining to Gods worship: whereas those who are indeed lovers of Religion, and of the Chur­ches of God, would seeke to make up those breaches, and to unite us more entirely against the common enemy.

Over rigid prosceution of the scru­pulous for things in­different. 2 The over rigid prosecution of those who are scrupulous in using some things enjoyned, which are held by those who enjoyn them, to be in themselves indifferent. It hath bin ever the desire of this House, exprest in many Parliaments in Q. Elizabeths time and since, that such might be tenderly used. It was one of our petitions delivered at Oxford to his Majestie that now is: but what little moderation it hath produced, is not unknowne to us all, any other vice almost Vnjust pu­nishments for matters not by law. may be better indured in a Minister than Inconformitie.

3 The unjust punishments, and vexations of sundry persons for matters required, without any warrant of Law: as

Reading the Booke. For not reading the book concerning recreation on the Lords day.

The Table set Altar­wise.For not removing the Communion Table to bee set Altarwise at the East end of the Chancell.

Comming to the railes For not comming up to the Railes to receive the Sacrament.

Preaching upon the Lo [...]ds day.For preaching the Lords day in the afternoone.

Varying from the catechisme. For Catechising in any other words and manner than in the pre­cise words of the short catechisme in the Common Prayer booke.

Abuse of Ecclesiasti­call juris­diction.The fifth and last grievance concerning Religion, was the incroachment and abuse of Ecclesiasticall jurisdiction: the particulars mentioned are these.

[Page 8] In fining & imprisoning 1 Fining and imprisoning in cases not allowed by Law.

Claiming jurisdiction to be Iure Divino.2 Their challenging their jurisdiction to be appropriate to their order, which they alledge to be jure Divino.

Articles of the Visitati­ons3 The contriving and publishing of new articles, upon which they inforce the Churchwardens to take oathes, and to make inqui­ries and presentments, as if such articles had the force of Canons: and this, he said, was an effect of great presumption and boldnesse, not only in the Bishops, but in their Archdeacons, Officials and Chancellors, taking upon themselves a kind of Synodall authority: and the Injunctions of this kinde, might well partake in name with that part of the common Law, which is called the Extravagants.

Grievances concerning the liberty of persons and estates. Having dispatcht these severall points, hee proceeded to the third part of grievances, being such as are against the common justice of the Realm, in the liberties of our persons, and proprietie of our estates, of which (he said) he had many to propound: In doing whereof, he would rather observe the order of time, wherein they were acted, than of consequence▪ but when hee should come to the cure, hee should then perswade the House to begin with those, who were of most importance, as being now in execution, and very much pressing and exhausting the Common-Wealth.

Tonnage & poundage impositions He began with the Tonnage and poundage, and other impositions not warranted by Law: and because these burdens had long lyen upon us, and the principles which produced them, are the same from whence diverse others are derived, he thought it necessary to premise a short narrative, and relation of the grounds and proceed [...]ngs of the power of imposing herein practised. It was (he said) a fundamen­tall Not to be taken but by consent in Parlia­ment. truth essentiall to the constitution and government o [...] this king­dome, an hereditary liberty and priviledge of all the free borne sub­jects of the Land, that no tax, tallage, or oth [...]r charge might be laid upon us, without common consent in Parliament, this was acknow­ledged by the Conqueror, Acknowledged by the Conque­ror ratified in that contract which hee made with this Nation, upon his admittance to the Kingdome, declared and confirmed in the Lawes which he published.

Sometimes broken by other Kings but never denyed This hath never bin denyed to any of our Kings, though broken and interrupted by some of them, especially by K. Iohn, and Hen. 3. then againe confirmed by Mag. Chart. and other succeeding lawes: yet not so well setled, but that it was sometime attempted by the two succeeding Edwards, in whose times the subjects wer [...] very sensible of all the breaches made upon the common [...]ibertie, and by the opportunitie of frequent Parliaments, pursued them with fresh complaints, and for the most part, found redresse, Those brea­ches repai­red by succeeding Parliaments and procured the right of the subject to be fortfied by new Statutes.

[Page 9] He observed that those Kings, even in the Acts whereby they did Some mix­ture of evi­dence for the subject in these ve­ry breaches. break the Law, did really affirme the subjects liberty, and disclaime that right of imposing, which is now chalēged, for they did usually procure the Merchants consent, to such taxes as were laid, therby to put a colour of justice upon their proceeding, and ordinarily they were limited to a short time, and then propounded to the ratifica­tion of the Parliament, where they were cancell'd or confirmed, as the necessity and state of the Kingdome did require.

But for the most part, such charges upon merchandize, were taken The grant by Parlia­ment most usuall. by authority of Parliament, and granted for some short time, in a greater or lesser proportion, as was requisite for supply of the pub­like occasions, 6 or 12 in the pound, for one, two, or three yeers, as they saw cause, to be imployed for the defence of the Sea, and it was acknowledged so clearly, to be in the power of Parliament, that they At first vari­ously limi­ted in re­spect of time and persons have sometimes bin granted to Noble men, sometimes to Merchants to be disposed for that use. Afterward they were granted to the King for life, Afterwards Confirmed to the King for life. and so continued for divers descents, yet still as a gift and grant of the Commons.

No contrary practise be­tween Ed. 3 and Q MaryBetwixt the time of Ed. the third, and Q. Mary, never Prince (that he could remember) offered to demand any imposition, but by grāt in Parliament: Q. Mary laid a charge upon cloth, by the equity of the Statute of Tunnage & Poundage, because the rate set upon wool was much more than upon cloth, & there being little wool carried out of the Kingdom unwrought, the Q thought she had reason, to lay somwhat more, yet not ful so much, as brought them to an equal­lity, Pretended equity for the Custome upon cloth. but that there stil continued a lesse charge upon wool wrought The grounds of the pre­termitted Custome. into cloth, than upon wool carried out unwrought; until K. Jame's times, when upon Nicholsons project, there was a further addition of charge, but still upon pretence of the Statute, which is that we call the pretermitted custome.

In Q. Eliz. time, one or two litle impositions crept in, the general Bates Case. prosperity of her raign overshadowing small errours and innova­tions: one of these was upon Currans, by occasion of the Merchants complaints, that the Venetians had laid a charge upon the English cloth, that so we might be even with them, and force them the soo­ner to take it off: this being demanded by K. Iames, was denied The judge­ment there­in for the King. by one Bates a Merchant, and upon a suit in the Exchequer, was adjudged for the King.

The manner of which judgement was thus: There were then but three Iudges, in that Court, all differing from one another in the grounds of their sentences. The first was of opinion, the King might [Page 10] impose upon such commodities as were forraigne, and superfluous Resulting from diffe­rent opini­ons of the Iudges. as Currans were, but not upon such as were native, and to be tran­sported, or necessary, and to be imported for the use of the kingdom. The second Iudge was of opinion, he might impose upon all for­raign Merchandise, whether superfluous or no, but not upon native. The third, that for as much as the King had the custody of the Ports and the guard of the Seas, and that he might open and shut up the ports as he pleased, he had a prerogative to impose upon all Mer­chandise, both exported and imported.

This single, distracted & divided judgement, is the foundation of The only foundation of [...]he pow­er o [...] impo­sing. all the impos [...]tions now in practice : for after this, K. Iam laid new charges upon all commodities outward and inward, not limited to a certaine time, and occasion, but reserved to himselfe, his heires and successors for ever; the first, impos [...]tions in fee simple, that were followed with com­plaints, and preserved by breaches of Parlia­ments ever heard of in this kingdome. This judgement, and the right of imposing thereupon assumed was a question in septimo & duodeci­mo of that King, and was the cause of the breach of both those Par­liaments, In 18. and 21. Jacobi, it was declined by this House, that they might preserve the favour of the K. for the dispatch of some o­ther great businesses, upon w ch they were more especially attentive.

In 1. of his Majesty, It necessarily came to be remembred upon the The re­dresse desi­red without diminution of the Kings profit. proposition on the Kings part, for renewing the bill of Tonnage and Poundage, but so moderate was that Parliament, that they thought rather to confirme the impositions already set by a law to be made, than to abolish them by a judgement in Parliament, but that and divers insuing Parliaments have been unhappily broken, before that endeavour could be accomplished, only at the last mee­ting, a Remonstrance was made concerning the liberty of the Sub­ject, in this point, and it hath alwayes been exprest to be the mea­ning of the House, and so it was (as hee said) his owne mea­ning in the proposition now made, to settle and restore the right according to law, and not to diminish the Kings profit, but to establish it by a free grant in Parliament. New bur­dens since the last Parlia­ments.

Since the breach of the last Parliament, his Majesty hath by a new book of Rates very much increased the burden upon Merchan­dize, and now Tonnage and Poundage, old and new impositions are all taken by Prerogative, without any grant in Parliament, or Divers mis­chiefes from these grievances. The King­dom bound by one pri­vate case: authority of law, as we conceive, from whence divers inconveni­ences and mischiefes are produced.

1 The danger of the president, that a judgement in one Court, and in one case, is made binding to all the Kingdome.

[Page 11] 2 Mens goods are seized, their legall suits are stopped, and ju­stice Interrupti­od of Iu­stice. denied to those, that desire to take the benefit of the Law.

3 The great summes of money received upon these impositioins, M [...]simploy­ment of the summes re­ceived. intended for the guard of the Seas, claimed and defended upon no ground, but of publike trust, for protection of Merchants and de­fence of the ports, are dispersed to other uses, and a new taxe raised for the same purposes.

4 These burdens are so excessive, that trade is thereby very much The bur­dens ex­cessive. hindered, the commodities of our owne, groweth extreamly aba­sed, and those imported much inhaunsed, all which lies not upon the Merchant alone, but upon the generality of the subject, and by this meanes the stocke of the Kingdom is much diminisht, our exporta­tion being lesse profitable, and our importation more chargeable. And if the warres and troubles in the neighbour parts had not brought almost the whole streame of Trade into this Kingdom, we should have found many more prejudicial effects of those impositi­ons, long before this time, than yet we have done; especially they To the American plan­tations e­speciall. have been insupportable to the poore plantations, whither many of his Majesties subjects have been transported, in divers parts of the Continent, and Islands of America, being a designe tending to the honour of the Kingdome, and the inlargement of his Majesties do­minions: The adventurers in this noble worke, have for the most part, no other support but Tobacco, upon which, such a heavy rate is set, that the King receives twice as much, as the true value of the commoditie to the owner.

5 Whereas these great burdens have caused divers Merchants Impositions upon trade intercour­sory. to apply themselves to a way of traffique abroad by transporting goods from one Country to another, without bringing them home into England It hath been lately endeavoured to set an Imposition upon this trade: so as the King will have a duty out of those com­modities which never came within his dominions, to the great discouragement of such active and industrious men.

The next generall head of Civil grievances, was inforcing men Compositi­ons for Knighthood to compound for Knighthood, which though it may seeme past, be­cause it is divers years since it was used, yet upon the same grounds the King may renew it, as often as he pleaseth, for the composition lookes backward, and the offence continuing, is subiect to a new fine. The state of that businesse, he layed downe thus.

Heretofore when the services due by tenure, were taken in kind The Origi­nall ground of the charg it were fit there should be some way of tryall, and approbation of those, that were bound to such services. Therefore it was ordained, [Page 12] that such as were to do Knights service, after they came of age, and had possession of their lands, and should be made Knights, that is, publikely declared, to be fit for that service, divers ceremonies and solemnities were in use for this purpose; and if by the parties neglect this was not done, he was punishable by Fine: there be­ing in those times an ordinary and open way to get Knighthood, for these who were borne to it.

Although the use of this hath for divers ages been discontinued, yet there have past very few Kings, under whom there hath not bin An old grie­vance in the kind. a general Summons, requiring those who had lands of such value as the Law prescribes, to appeare at the Coronation, or some other great solemnity, and to be Knighted, and yet nothing intended but New in the manner and excesse, the getting of some small fines: so as this grievance is not altoge­ther new in the kind, though it be new in the manner, and in the ex­cesse of it, and that in divers respects.

1 First, It hath been extended beyond all intention of and colour of law, not only Inne-holders, but likewise Lease-holders, Copy­holders, Merchants and others, scarce any man free from it. Respect of

2 The [...]i [...]es have beene immoderate, far beyond the proportion, The genera­lity. of former times.

3 The proceedings have been without any example, president, or rule of justice: for though those that were summoned did appeare, Greatnesse of fines. Multiplica­tion of dis­tresses and issues. yet distresses infinite were made out against them; and issues in­creased and multiplied, and no way open to discharge those issues, by plea or otherwise, but only by compounding with the commis­sioners at their own pleasure.

3 The third was, the great Inundation of Monopolies, whereby heavy burthens are laid, not only upon forraigne, but also native Monopolies introduced by the sope pa­tent under­taken by papists▪ commodities. These began in the Sope-Patent; the principall un­dertakers in this, were div [...]rs popish Recusants, men of estate and quality, such as in likelyhood did not only aime at their private gaine, but that by this open breach of Law, the King and his people might be more fully divided, & the wayes of Parliament men more throughly obstructed. Amongst the infinite inconveniences and Full of mis­cheife. mischiefes which this did produce, these few may be observed.

1 The impairing the goodnesse, and inhancing the price of most 1 the price of commo­dities in­creast and goodnesse a­bated, Restraint of trade. of the Commodities and Manufactures of the Realme, yea of those, who are of most necessary and common use, as Salt, Sope, Beere, Coles, and infinite others.

2 That under colour of Licences, Trades, and Manufactures are restrained to a few hands, and many of the Subjects deprived of [Page 13] their ordinary way of livelyhood.

3 That upon such illegal grants, a great number of persons had bin unjustly vexed by Pursevants, Imprisonments attendance up­on Illegall im­prisonments & vexations the Councell Table, seisure of goods, and many other wayes.

Shipmony.4 The fourth, that great and unparalleld grievance of the Shipmoney, which though it may seeme to have more warrant of Law than the rest, because there hath a judgement past for it, yet in truth it is thereby aggravated, if it be considered, that Aggravated not suppor­ted by the Iudgement. Which is not grounded upon any law custom president or authority of law bookes. that judgement is founded upon the naked opinion of some judges, without any written Law, without any custome, or au­thority of Law broken, yea without any one president for it. Many expresse Laws, many Declarations in Parliaments, and the constant judgment and practise of all times being against it, yea in the nature of it, it will be found to be disproportionable to the case of necessity which is pretended to be the ground of it.

Necessity excludes all formalities and solemnities, it is no The course unproper for a case of ne­cessity. time then to make Levies and Taxes to build and prepare Ships, every mans person, every mans Ships are to be imployed for the resisting of an invading enemy: the right on the Subjects part was so cleare, and the pretences against it so weake, that hee thought no man would venture his reputation or conscience in the defence of that judgment, being so contrary to the grounds of the Law, to the practise of former times, and so inconsistent Abounding in variety of mischiefes. in it selfe. Amongst many inconveniences and obloquies of this grievance he noted these.

1 That it extendeth to all persons, and to all times, it sub­jected The general extent and remedilesse condition, our goods to distresse, and our persons to imprisonment, and the causes of it being secret and invisible, referred to his Majesties brest alone, the Subject was left without possibility of exception, and reliefe.

2 That there was no rules or limits for the proportion, so that Arbitrary proportion. no man knew what estate he had, or how to order his course or expences.

3 That it was taken out of the Subjects purse, by a writ, and Imposed by writ dispos'd by instructi­ons. brought into the Kings Coffers by instructions from the Lords of his most honourable privy Councell. In the legall defence of it, the Writ only did appeare; of the instructions, there was no no­tice taken, which yet in the reall execution of it, were most pre­dominant. It carryes the face of service in the Writ, and of Re­venue in the instructions : if this way had not been found to turn the Ship, into money, it would easily have appeared how incom­patible [Page 14] this service is with the office of a Sheriffe, in the inland Improper for the Sheriffes. Counties, and how incongruous and inconvenient for the inha­bitants. The law in a body politike is of like nature, which al­wayes prepareth and disposeth proper and fit instruments and Vnprovided for by law. Organs, for every naturall operation; if the Law had intended any such charge as this, there should have beene certaine rules, suitable meanes and courses, for the levying and managing of it.

5 The fift was the Inlargement of the Forrests beyond the Inlarge­ment of Forrests. bounds and perambulations appointed and stablished by act of Parliament, twenty seven and twenty eight Edward the first, and that this is done upon the same reasons and exceptions Against expresse Statutes. which had beene on the Kings part propounded, and by the Commons answered in Parliament, not long after that esta­blishment. It is not unknowne to many in this House, that those perambulations were the fruit and effect of that famous Charter, which is called Charta de forresta, whereby many tumults, trou­bles, Charta de forresta, made use­lesse. and discontents had beene taken away, and composed be­tween the King and his subjects, & it is ful of danger, that by re­viving those old Questions we may fal into the like diststempers.

He said, that hereby no blame could fall upon that great Lord Iustice in Eyer clered who is now Iustice of Eyre, and in whose name these things were acted, it should not be expected that he should take notice of the lawes and customes of the realme, therefore he was careful The Answer lies upon the Iudges. to procure the assistance and direction of the Iudges, and if any thing were done against law, it was for them to answer, and not for him.

The particular irregularities and obliquities of this businesse Particular obliquities. were these.

1 The surreptitious procuring a verdict for the King, without Surreptiti­ous proceedings. giving notice to the Countrey, whereby they might be prepared to give in evidence for their owne interest and indemnity; as was done in Essex.

2 Whereas the Iudges in the Ius [...]ice seat in Essex were consul­ted A judgment pretended. with, about the entry of the former verdict, and delivered their opinion touching that alone, without medling with the point of right, this opinion was after inforced in other Coun­ties, as if it had beene a judgement upon the matter, and the Councell for the Countie discountenanced in speaking, because it was said to be already adjudged.

3 The inheritance of divers of the Subjects have been hereup­on The sub­ject distur­bed. disturbed after the quiet possession of three or foure hundred [Page 15] yeares, and a way open for the disturbance of many others.

4 Great sums of mony have bin drawn from such as have lands Inforced to compound for great fines. within these pretended bounds, and those who have forborne to make composition, have beene threatned with the execution of the forrest lawes.

5 The fifth, was the selling of Nusances, or at least, some such Selling of Nusances. things as are supposed to be Nusances.

The King as Father of the Common wealth is to take care of The legall tryal of Nu­sances o­mitted, the publik commodities, & advantages of his subjects, as Rivers, Highways, Common Sewers, & such like, & is to remove what­soever is prejudiciall to them, & for the tryall of those, there are legall and ordinary writs, of Ad quod damnum: but of late a new A new ex­trajudiciall way practi­sed, and extrajudiciall way hath been taken of declaring matters to be Nusances, and divers have thereupon been questioned, and if they would not compound they have been fined; if they do com­pound, that which was first prosecuted as a common Nusance, is taken into the Kings protection, and allowed to stand, & having Composti­ons in for­ced, and yeelded the King Mony, no further care is taken, whether it bee good or bad for the common wealth By this a very great & pub­like trust is either broken or abused: if the matter compounded A publike trust broken or abused. for be truly a Nusance, then it is broken to the hurt of the peo­ple: if it bee not a Nusance, then is it abused to the hurt of the party, the particulars mentioned, were:

1 The Commission for buildings in & about this town, which The particu­lars. heretofore hath bin presented by this House as a grievance in K. Iames his time, but now of late the execution hath beene much Commission for bu [...]lding more frequent and prejudiciall than it was before.

Secondly, Commission for Depopulations, which began Depopula­tions. some few yearers since, and is still in hot prosecution.

By both these, the subject is restrained from disposing of his The several mischiefes of both. owne, some have been commanded to demolish their houses, o­thers have been forbidden to build, other after great trouble and vexation, have been forced to redeeme their peace with large summes, and they still emaine by law, as lyable to a new quest­ion as before, for it is agreed by all, that the King cannot licence a common Nusance: and although in deed these are not such, yet it is a matter of very ill consequence, that under that name they should be compounded for, and may in ill times be made a presi­dent for the Kings of this Realme to claime a power of licencing such things as are Nusances indeed.

[Page 16] The seventh, the Military charges laid upon the severall Coun­ties Military charges of the Kingdom, sometimes by warrant under his Majesties signature, sometimes by Letters from the Councel Table, & some­times (such hath been the boldnes and presumption of some men) by the order of the Lord Lievtenants, or deputy Leivtenant alone.

This is a growing evill still multiplying and increasing from a few particulars to many from small summes to great: it began A growing evill. first to be practised as a loane, for supply of coat and conduct mo­ney, Coat and conduct mo­ney [...] practised by Q Eliz. & for this it hath some countenance, from the use in Q Eliz. time, when the Lords of the Councell did often desire the deputy Lievtenants to procure so much mony to be laid out in the Coun­try as the service did require, with a promise to pay it againe in London; for which purpose there was a constant warrant in the Exchequer. This (he said) was the practice in her time, and in a great part of K James, and the payments so certain, as it was lit­tle otherwise, than taking up mony upon bils of exchange; at this day they follow these presidents, in the manner of the demand (for it is with a promise of a repayment) but not in the certain­ty and readines of satisfaction.

The first particular brought into a tax (as he thought) was the Muster ma­sters wages, Muster Masters wages, at which many repined, but being for small summes, it began to be generally digested: yet in the last Parliament, this House was sensible of it, and to avoyd the danger of the president that the Subjects should bee forced to make any payments without consent in Parliament, they thought upon a Bill that may bee a rule to the Lieutenants what to de­mand, and to the People what to pay. But the hopes of this Bill were dasht in the dissolution of that Parliament. Now of late divers other particulars are growing into practice, which make the grievance much more heavy: those mentioned were these.

  • Pre [...]ing,
    1 Pressing men against their will, and forcing them which are rich or unwilling to serve to find others in their place.
  • Publike ma­gazins,
    2 The provision of publike Magazins for powder, and other Munition, Spades and Pickaxes.
  • Salary of officers
    3 The Salary of Divers officers besides the Muster-Master.
  • Cart horses and Carts,
    4 The buying of Cart-horses and Carts, and hyring of Carts for Cariages.

Extrajudici­all declara­tions of Iud­ges, The eighth, the extrajudiciall declarations of Judges whereby the subjects have beene bound in matters of great importance without hearing of Counsell or Argument on their part, and [Page 17] are left without legall remedie, by writ of errour or otherwise: he remembred the expression used by another member of the House of a teeming Parliament: this (hee said) was a teeming grievance: from hence have issued most of the great grievances now in being, A teeming grievance. The Shipmoney, the pretended Nusances already mentioned, and some others which have not yet beene toucht upon: Especially that concerning the proceedings of Ecclesiasticall Courts.

The ninth, That the authority and wisdom of the Councell Table, Monopolies countenan­ced by the Councell Table. The ancient oath of coū ­cellours. have bin applyed to the contriving and managing of severall Mono­polies, and other great grievances (he said) The institution of the Councell Table, was much for the advantage and security of the subject, to avoyd surreptions and precipitate Courts in the great af­faires of the Kingdome: That by Law an oath is to be taken by all those of the Kings Counsell, in which amongst other things it is ex­prest, that they should for no cause forbeare to doe right, to all the Kings people, and if such an oath be not now taken, he wisht it might be brought into use againe.

It was the honour of that Table, to bee as it were incorporated Their trust & dignity. with the King, His royall power and greatnesse did shine most con­spicuously in their actions, and in their Counsels: We have heard of Projectors and Resurees here tofore and what opinion and relish they have found in this House is not unknowne. But that any such thing should bee acted by the Councell Table, which might give strength and countenance to Monopolies, as it hath not beene used till now of late, so it cannot be apprehended without the just griefe of the honest subject, and incouragement of those who are ill af­fected.

He remembred that in Tortio of King.

A Noble Gentleman, then a very worthy member of the Com­mons Much dimi­nished and debased. House, now a Great Lord and eminent Councellour of State, did in this place declare this opinion concerning that clause used to bee inserted in Pattents of Monopoly, whereby Iustices of Peace are commanded to assist the Pattentees, this he urged as a great dis­honour to those Gentlemen, which are in Commission to bee so meanely imployed, with much more reason, may we in jealousie of the honour of the Councell Table, humbly desire that their precious By being imployed in matters of such ill re­port. time, their great abilities designed to the publike care and service of the Kingdome, may not receive such a staine, such a diminution, as to be imployed in matters of so ill report, in the estimation of the law: of so ill effect, in the apprehension of the people. Star cham­ber a great Councell.

The tenth, The High Court of Starchamber, which some think, [Page 18] succeed that, which in the Parliament Rolles is called, Magnum Concilium, and to which, Parliaments were wont so often to re­ferre those important matters, which they had no time to deter­mine. This Court which in the late restauration or erection of it, A court e­rected a­gainst op­pression. in Henry the seventh's time, was especially designed to restraine the oppression of great men, and to remove the obstructions and impediments of the Law. This which is both a Court of Coun­cell and a Court of Justice, hath beene made an instrument of e­recting and defending Monopolies and other grievances; to set a face of right upon these things, which are unlawfull in their owne nature: a face of publike good, upon such as are pernicious in their use and execution. The Soape-Patent, and diverse other Applyed the establi­shing of Monopolies evidences thereof may be given, so well knowne, as not to require a particular relation: And as if this were not enough, this Court ha [...]h lately intermedled with the Ship-money, diverse Sheriffes have beene questioned, for not levying, and collecting such sums, as their Co [...]nties have beene charged with, and if this beginning be not prevented, the Star-Chamber will become a Court of Reve­nue, and it shall be made crime not to collect or pay such taxes, as To the recovery of ship money. the State shall require.

The Eleventh, He said, he was gone very high, yet hee must The Kings ediccts and Proclama­tions. goe a little higher: that great and most eminent power of the King of making Edicts and Proclamations, which are said to bee Leges Temporis, with whom our Princes have used to encounter with sudden and unexpected danger, as would not indure so much delay, as assembling the great Councell of the Kingdome, This which is one of the most Glorious beames of Majestie, rigorous in commanding Reverence, and subjection, to our unspeakeable For the ere­cting of Monopolies. griefe, hath been often exercised for the enjoyning and maintaining sundry Monopolies, and other grants, exceeding burdensome, and prejudiciall to the people.

The Twelfth, Although hee was come as high as he could up­on The word and truth of God. earth, yet the presumption of evill men did leade him one step higher, even as high as Heaven, as high as the Throne of God. It was now, hee said, growne common, for ambitious and corrupt men of the Clergie, to abuse the truth of God, and the bond of Conscience, preaching downe the Lawes and liberties of the king­dome, pretending Divine authority, for an absolute power in the King, to doe what he would with our persons, and goods, this hath Pretended for the ab­solute pow­er of Kings. been often published in Sermons, and Printed books, and is now the high way to preferment.

[Page 19] The last Parliament, we had a sentence for an offence of this kinde, against one Mannering, then a Doctor, now a Bishop, concerning whom (hee said) hee would say no more but this, that when he saw him at his Barre, in the most humble dejected posture, The offence of D. Man­nering. that ever hee observed, hee thought hee would not so soone have leapt into a Bishops Chaire, but his successe hath emboldened o­thers, therefore (hee said) this may well bee noted as a double Now practised by o­thers. To the great hurt and grie­vance of the people. gr [...]evance, that such doctrine should bee allowed, that such men should be preferred, yea as a roote of grievances whereby they in­deavour to corrupt the Kings Conscience, and as much as in them lyes, to deprive the people of that Royall protection, to which his Majestie is bound by the fundamentall Lawes of the Kingdom, and his own personall Oath.

The thirteenth: The long intermission of the Parliaments, con­trary The Inter­mission of Parliaments to the two statutes yet in force, whereby it is appointed there should bee Parliaments once a yeare, at the least, and most contrary to the publike good of the Kingdome, for this being well remedied would produce remedies for all the rest.

Having put through the severall heads of grievances, hee came The subjects grievances hurtfull to the King. to the second maine branch, propounded in the beginning. That the disorders from whence these grievances issued, were as hurt­full to the King, as to the people, of which hee gave diverse rea­sons.

1 The interruption of the sweet communion which ought to B. interrupt their com­munion. bee betwixt the King and His People, in matters of grace and sup­ply.

They have need of him by His generall pardon, to bee secured from projectors, and informers, to bee freed from obsolete Lawes, from the subtle devices of such as seeke to restraine the Prerogative to their own private advantage, and the publike hurt; and he hath need of them for counsell and support, in great and extraordinary occasions. This mutuall entercourse would so weane the affecti­ons and interests of His Subjects, into his actions and designes, that their wealth and their persons would bee his, his owne estate would bee managed to most advantage, and publike undertakings would bee prosecuted at the charge and adventure of the Subject: The Victorious attempts in Queene ELIZABETHS time upon Portugall, Spaine, and the Indies, were for the great­est part, made upon the poore Subjects purses, and not upon the Queenes, though the Honour and profit of the successe, did most accrew to her.

[Page 20] 2 Those often breaches and discontentments betwixt the King By dome­stical brea­ches & dis­contents. and the people, are very apt to diminish his reputation abroad, and disadvantage his treaties and alliances.

3 The apprehension of the favour and incouragement given to By weakn­ing his par­tie abroad. Popery, hath much weakned his Majesties party beyond the Sea, and impared that advantage which Queen Elizabeth and His Roy­all Father hath heretofore made, of being hea [...]s of the Protestant union.

4 The innovations in Religion and rigour of Ecclesiasticall By forcing his subjects to leave the kingdome. Courts, have forced a great many of his Majesties Subjects to for­sake the Land, whereby not only their persons, and their posterity, but their wealth, and their industry are lost to this Kingdome, much to the demolishing of His Majesties Customes and Subsidies. A­mongst other inconveniences, this was especially to bee observed, that diverse Clothiers driven out of the Countrey, had set up the manufacture of Cloth beyond the Seas, whereby this State is like to suffer much by abatement of the price of Woolls, and by want of imployment for the poore, both which likewise tend to his Ma­jesties particular losse.

5 It puts the King upon unproper wayes of supply, which being By unproper wayes of supply. not warranted by Law, are much more burdensome to the subject, than advantagious to h [...]s Majesty. In France not long since, upon a survey of the Kings Revenue, it was found that two parts in three, never came to the Kings purse, but were diverted to the profit of the officers or Ministers of the Crowne, and it was thought a very good service and reformation, to reduce two parts to the King, lea­ving still a third part to the Instruments as were imployed about getting it in. It may well be doubted, that the King may have the like or worse successe in England: which appeares already in some particulars.

The King hath reserved upon this Monopoly of Wines, 30 thou­sand Pound Rent a yeere, the Vintner paies 40. Shillings a Tun, which comes to Ninty thousand pounds: the price upon the Sub­ject by retaile, is increased Two pence a Quart, which comes to Eight pound a Tunne, and for 45000. Tunne brought in yeerely, amounts to 3. hundred 60. thousand pounds, which is 3. hundred and 30. thousand pounds losse to the Kingdome, above the Kings Rent; other Monopolies, as that of Soape, have been very charge­able to the kingdome, and brought very little Treasure into his Ma­jesties Coffers.

The Law provides for that revenue of the Crowne; which is [Page 21] Naturall and proper, that it may be safely collected, and brought to Account, but this illegall Revenue, being without any such provi­sion, is left to hazard, and much uncertainty, either not to be retai­ned, or not duly accounted of.

6 It is apt to weaken the Industry and Courage of the Subject, if By weak­ning the in­dustry and courage of the subject. they be left uncertain: whether they shall reap the benefit of their own paines, and hazard those who are brought into the Condition of slaves, will easily grow to a slavish disposition, who having no­thing to lose, doe commonly shew more boldnesse in disturbing, than in defending a kingdome.

7 These irregular Courses do give opportunity to ill Instruments By introdu­cing ill In­struments into the Kings ser­vice. to insinuate themselves into the Kings service, for wee cannot but observe, that if a man bee officious in furthering their inordinate burdens of Ship money, Monopolies, and the like: it varnisheth over all other faults, and makes him fit both for Imployment and preferment: So that out of their offices, they are furnisht for vast expences, purchases, Buildings; and the King loseth often more in desperate debts at their deaths, than he got by them all their lives, whether this were not lately verified in a Westerne man, much im­ployed while he lived, he leaves to the Knowledge of those who w [...]re acquainted with his Course, and hee doubted not but others might be found in the like case.

Those that are affected to Popery, to prophanesse, and to supersti­tious innovations, in matters of Religion. All kinde of Spies and intelligencers have meanes to be countenanced and trusted if they will be but zealous in these kinde of services, which how much it detracts from His Majestie, in honour, in profit and prosperity of publike affaires, lyes open to every mans apprehension: and from these reasons or some of them, hee thought it proceeded that through the whole course of the English story it might be observ­ed, that those Kings who had bin most respectfull of the Lawes, had bin most eminent in greatnesse, in Glory and successe, both at home and abroad; and that others, who thought to subsist by the viola­tion of them, did often fall into a state of weaknesse, poverty, and Infortunitie.

8 The differences and discontents betwixt his Majestie, and the By divert­ing the KINGS thoughts from divers great and hopeful en­terprises. people at home, have in all likely-hood diverted his Royal thoughts and Councells from those great opportunities which hee might have, not only to weaken the House of Austria, to restore the Pa­latinate, but to gaine to himself a higher pitch of power and great­nesse, than any of his Ancestors.

[Page 22] It is not unknown how weak, how distracted, how discontented the Spanish Colonies are in the West Indies. There are now in those parts in New England, Virginia, and the Caribe-Islands, and in the Barmudos, at least 60000 able persons of this Nation, many of them well armed, and their bodies seasoned to that Climate, which with a very small charge might bee set down in some advantagious parts of these pleasant, rich and fruitfull Countreys, and easily make his Majestie Master of all that treasure, which not only foments the war, but is the great support of Popery in all parts of Christendom.

9 Lastly, Those courses are apt to produce such distempers in the By produ­cing many chargeable distempers state, as may not be setled without great charge and losse, by which means more may be consumed in a few moneths than shall be gotten by such wayes in many yeeres.

Having past through the two first generall Branches, he was now come to the third, wherein he was to set downe the wayes of hea­ling The wayes of remedy­ing their grievances. and removing those grievances, which consisted of two maine Branches, first in declaring the Law where it was doubtfull: The second in better provision for the execution of Law, where it is cleere: But (he said) because hee had already spent much time, and began to find some confusion in his Memory, he would refer the par­ticulars to another opportunity, and for the present only move that, which was generall to all, and would give waight and advantage to all the particular wayes of redresse; that is, that we should speedily desire a Conference with the Lords, and acquaint them with the Mi­serable condition wherein we find the Church and State, and as wee have already resolved to joyn in a religious seeking of God, in a day of fast and humiliation, so to intreat them to concur with us, in a Parliamentary course, of petitioning the King as there should bee occasion, and in searching out the causes and remedies of these ma­ny insupportable grievances under which we lye, that so by the uni­ted wisdome and authority of both Houses, such courses may bee ta­ken, as (through Gods blessing) may advance the honour and great­nesse of His Maj [...]sty, and restore and establish the peace and pros­perity of the Kingdome.

This (hee said) Wee might undertake with comfort and hope of successe: for though there bee a darknesse upon the Land, a thicke and palpable darknesse, like that of Egypt; yet as in that, the Sunne had not lost his light, nor the Aegyptians their sight, the interrup­tion was onely in the Medium, so with us there is still (God bee thanked) light in the Sunne, Wisdome and Justice in H [...]s Maje­stie to dispell this darknesse, and in us there remaines a visuall fa­culty, [Page 23] whereby wee are inabled to apprehend, and moved to de­sire light, and when wee shall be blessed in the enjoying of it, we shall thereby be incited to returne His Majesty such thankes, as may make it thine more cleerely in the world, to His owne glory, and in the hearts of his people, to their joy and contentment.


This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. Searching, reading, printing, or downloading EEBO-TCP texts is reserved for the authorized users of these project partner institutions. Permission must be granted for subsequent distribution, in print or electronically, of this EEBO-TCP Phase II text, in whole or in part.