LESCLAR-
CISSEMENT DE LA LAN-
gue francoy<|s>e/ compo<|s>e par mai<|s>tre
Iehan Pal<|s>grave Angloys
natyf de Londres/
et gradue de
Paris.
NEQUE, LUNA, PER,
NOCTEM.
M G
P
Anno verbi incarnati.
M.D.XXX.
LEONARDI COXI Radingien<|s>is ludi
moderatoris, Ad Gallic lingu
<|s>tudio<|s>os, Carmen.
Gallica qui<|s>quis amas, axacte verba <|s>onare,
Et pariter certis iungere dicta modis,
Nulla <|s>it in toto menda vt <|s>ermone reperta,
Pro vero Gallo, quin facile ip<|s>e probes,
Hc euolue mei Palgraui <|s>cripta di<|s>erti,
His linguam normis v<|s>que polite <|s>tude.
Sic te miretur laudetque vrbs docta loquentem
Lutecia, indigenam iuret et e<|s><|s>e <|s>uum.
EIUSDEM COXI ad eruditum virum GE-
FRIDUM TROY de Burges Gallum, Campi
Floridi authorem, quem ille <|s>ua lingua Champ Fleury
uocat, nomine omnium Anglorum, Phaleutium.
CAMPO QUOD toties Gefride docte
In florente tuo cupi<|s>ti, habemus.
Nam <|s>ub legibus hic bene approbatis
Sermo Gallicus ecce perdocetur.
Non rem grammaticam Palmon ante
Tractarat melius <|s>uis latinis,
Quotquot floruerant ve po<|s>terorum,
Nec Grcis melius putato Gazam,
In<|s>truxi<|s><|s>e <|s>uos libris politis,
Seu quotquot prtio prius fuere,
Quam nunc Gallica i<|s>te no<|s>ter Tradit.
E<|s>t doctus, facilis, breuisque quantum
Res permittit, et inde nos ouamus,
Campo quod toties GEFRIDE docte
In florente tuo cupi<|s>ti, habentes.
To the mo<|s>t hygh and puy<|s><|s>ant prince kyng Henry
the ryght by the grace of god/ kyng of Englande and of Franceo<~r> of the fayth/ and lo<~r>de of Irelande. Iohn Pal<|s>graue his
mo<|s>t humble and mo<|s>t obei<|s><|s>aunt <|s>ubiect and dayly o<~r>atour/ de<|s>y-
reth long durance of good lyfe/ and p<~r>o<|s>perous felicite.
DE<|s>irous to do <|s>ome humble <|s>eruice vnto the
nobilite of this victo<~r>ious realme/ & vniuer<|s>ally vn
to all other e<|s>tat of this my natyfe count<~r>y. After I
was commaunded by your mo<|s>t redouted hyghne<|s><|s>e/
to in<|s>truct the right excellent p<~r>inces/ your mo<|s>t dere
and mo<|s>t entirely beloved <|s>u<|s>ter quene Mary doua-
gier of France/ in the frenche tong. As one whiche had
conceyued <|s>ome lytell hope and confidence/ that there had chaun<|s>ed me a
convenient occ<|s>ion/ by ray<|s>on of that charge/ to employe my labours a
bout the thyng/ whiche myght in tyme to come/ be vnto your noble grace
an evident argument and declaration/ of the towardne<|s><|s>e of my mo<|s>te
humble and mo<|s>t obei<|s><|s>aunt hert/ in the accomply<|s><|s>hement of any your
hyghne<|s><|s>es mo<|s>t d<~r>adde commandementes. I oftymes began thus to con-
<|s>ider and debate with my <|s>elfe. This lyke charge haue dyvers others
had afo<~r>e my dayes/ and many others vndouted <|s>hall al<|s>o herafter be-
<|s>towe they<~r> tyme in <|s>uche lyke <|s>tudious exerci<|s>e. Whiche thyng amon-
ge<|s>t others hath bene a great occa<|s>ion/ that many <|s>ond<~r>y clerkes haue
fo<~r> they<~r>tyme taken they<~r> penne in hande/ and to <|s>hewe they<~r> good wil-
les and towarde diligence/ <|s>ufficiently to acquite them on they<~r> behalfes/
wherby they myght of the p<~r>inces our <|s>overaynes mo<|s>t renoumed p<~r>o-
genitours/ and other hygh e<|s>tates of this noble realme/ whom fo<~r> they<~r>
tymes in this exerci<|s>e they <|s>erved/ wo<~r>thely attayne <|s>ome lytell thanke
and favour/ <|s>ome thyng haue they in w<~r>ityng lefte behynde them/ con-
cernyng vnto this mater/ fo<~r> the ea<|s>e and fo<~r>theraunce/ as well of <|s>uche
as <|s>hulde in lyke charge after them <|s>uccede/ as of them whiche from tyme
to tyme in that tong were to be in<|s>tructed. Wherfo<~r>e/ <|s>yns it that plea-
<|s>ed our mo<|s>t redouted <|s>overayne/ to commyt vnto me of others the mo<|s>t
unwo<~r>thy and vn<|s>ufficient this lyke roume and exerci<|s>e. I <|s>hall al<|s>o by
they<~r> exemple/ endevour me fo<~r> my party/ of this my nece<|s><|s>ity/ by rea<|s>on
of his highne<|s><|s>es plea<|s>ure and mo<|s>t d<~r>ad commandement/ to make <|s>ome
lytell towardne<|s><|s>e vnto vertue/ and takyng light and erudition of they<~r>
<|s>tudious labours/ whiche in this mater befo<~r>e me/ haue taken paynes
to write. I <|s>hall a<|s><|s>aye <|s>ome <|s>mall thyng to adde by my poo<~r>e diligence/
wherby/ nat onely I may the mo<~r>e <|s>uffyciently acquite me in my charge/
but al<|s>o/ that by mean of my poo<~r>e labours taken on this occa<|s>ion/ the
A.ii.frenche
frenche tonge may herafter by others the mo<~r>e ea<|s>ely be taught/ & al<|s>o
be attayned vnto by <|s>uche/ as fo<~r> their tymes therof <|s>halbe de<|s>y<~r>ous.
Abidyng therfo<~r>e vpon this my intended purpo<|s>e/ I dyd my effectuall
devoire to en<|s>ertche out <|s>uche bokes/ as had by others of this mater be-
fo<~r>e my tyme ben compyled/ of whiche vndouted/ after enquery and en-
<|s>errhe made fo<~r> them/ dyvers came vnto my handes/ as well <|s>uche who<|s>e
authours be yet maonge<|s>t vs lyveng/ as <|s>uche whiche were of this ma-
ter by other <|s>ond<~r>ie per<|s>ons longe afo<~r>e my dayes compo<|s>ed. And prey
uyng/ that they all by one acco<~r>de and agrement/ chefely treated of two
thynges/ whiche they iuged vnto <|s>uche of our nation/ as were mynded
to lerne that langage/ of all others to be mo<|s>t chefely requi<|s>yte/ that is
to <|s>aye/ Howe the Frenche tong ought to be p<~r>onounced/ and to <|s>hewe
wherin their trewe Analogie dyd re<|s>t/ <|s>o that after a frenche wo<~r>de were
ones vnto vs knowen/ we myght wotte fo<~r> the kepynge of trewe con-
gruyte in that tonge (if the wo<~r>de of hym <|s>elfe were varyable) how to
welde hym/ in his ca<|s>es/ gend<~r>e/ nomb<~r>es/ modes/ ten<|s>es/ and per<|s>ons.
I al<|s>o on my partte/ dyde my poo<~r>e dilygence in two <|s>ond<~r>ie bookes/
(v<|s>yng <|s>uche o<~r>der/ as <|s>emed vnto my poo<~r>e iugement/ fo<~r> that mater
mo<|s>t convenyent) to entreate and w<~r>ite of the <|s>elfe thynges. Whiche af-
ter I had (<|s>o as it wolde be) fyni<|s><|s>hed: nat e<|s>temyng the <|s>ymplene<|s><|s>e
of my poo<~r>e labours in that behalfe/ in any wi<|s>e wo<~r>thy to come befo<~r>e
your highne<|s><|s>es p<~r>e<|s>ens. I offred them vnto your noble graces <|s>ayde
mo<|s>t dere and mo<|s>t entierly beloved Su<|s>ter/ and to the highly renou-
med p<~r>ince Charles B<~r>andon duke of Suffolke/ her moo<|s>t wo<~r>thy
e<|s>pou<|s>e/ suppolying it vnto me largely to be <|s>uffycient/ if my poo<~r>e la-
bours myght vnto their graces/ to whom fo<~r> their manyfolde benefyt
I was <|s>o highly bounded/ in any parte be acceptable. But whan they
had tho<~r>owly di<|s>yted my <|s>aid two bokes/ of their great goodne<|s><|s>e and
<|s>ynguler favour toward me/ moche mo<~r>e e<|s>temyng them than they in
ded were wo<~r>thy/ their graces dyde than put me in a farther hope and
confo<~r>te/ that your highne<|s><|s>e/ whiche of your great bountuou<|s>ne<|s><|s>e and
notable benignyte/ nat onely enco<~r>age well doers in any kynde of ver-
tue/ to encrea<|s>e & to do better/ but al<|s>o gratiou<|s>ly di<|s><|s>ymule your mo<|s>t
humble <|s>ubiectes errours/ to confo<~r>te them to amende/ and afterwarde
be mo<~r>e dilygent/ wolde nat refu<|s>e benignely and in good parte to ac-
cept the thyng/ wherof your noble grace was the meer cau<|s>er and very
chefe occa<|s>ion/<|s>o I on my tie to make my po<~r>e gyfte <|s>ome lytell thing
mo<~r>e acceptable/ wolde yet in this mater take a farther dilygence/ and
wolde a<|s><|s>ay/ if I coulde by the o<~r>der of the letters fy<~r><|s>t <|s>et fo<~r>the in our
tonge/ and than declared in frenche/ <|s>ette out wo<~r>de fo<~r> wo<~r>de & ph<~r>a-
sis fo<~r> ph<~r>a<|s>es/ affy<~r>mynge that though my labours were <|s>ome thynge
commodious
commodious fo<~r> an Introduction towardes the better attaynyng of this
langage yet were they nat fully <|s>ufficient fo<~r> any of our nation/ by his
owne <|s>tudy to attayne the frenche tonge by/ except after their trewe -
nunciation and arte Grammaticall ones knowen/ we myght haue plenty
of frenche wo<~r>des al<|s>o/ to exp<~r>e<|s><|s>e our myndes withall. Whole goodad-
verti<|s>ementes and plea<|s>ures/ acco<~r>dyng to my mo<|s>t bounden duette to
obey. But mo<|s>t e<|s>pecially/ above all other thynges/ de<|s>y<~r>ous to leave
<|s>ome lytell monument vnto your noble graces po<|s>terity/ howe that <|s>ome
tyme it <|s>tode with your highne<|s><|s>es plea<|s>ure/ that I your mo<|s>t humble
and mo<|s>t obei<|s><|s>aunt/ <|s>ubiecte <|s>hulde/ employ my tyme about this <|s>tudy
and exerci<|s>e. I haue nat onely a<|s><|s>ayde <|s>o to mary our tonge & the french
togider/ that there <|s>hulde fewe wo<~r>des in compari<|s>on of bothe the ton-
ges be wantyng/ no<~r> ph<~r>a<|s>es where the tonges diffre/ & haue nat wo<~r>de
fo<~r> worde be vn<|s>etfo<~r>the/ and by examples exp<~r>e<|s><|s>ed/ But farthermo<~r>e/
folwyng the o<~r>der of Theodo<~r>us Gaza/ in his gramer of the Greke
tonge/ I haue al<|s>o added vnto my fo<~r>mer labours a thirde boke/ whi-
che is a very comment and expo<|s>ytour vnto my <|s>econde. So that the ac-
cidentes/ vnto the partes of rea<|s>on in the frenche tong/ and other p<~r>e-
ceptes grammaticall/ whiche I haue but b<~r>efely and in a generaltee tou-
ched in my <|s>econde boke/ and <|s>o/ as vnto an Introduction dothe <|s>uffi<|s>e.
In my <|s>aid thirde boke consequently & in due o<~r>d<~r>e be declared/ dilated/
& <|s>ette fo<~r>the at the length. Wherin mo<|s>t high and mighty p<~r>ince/ howe
<|s>oever beyllable my poo<~r>e dilygence hath ben/ were it nat that the great
and weighty affay<~r>es/ whiche contynually without intermy<|s><|s>ion lye vn-
der the o<~r>deryng of your mo<|s>t puy<|s><|s>aunt <|s>eptre royall/ at all tymes re-
quire the p<~r>e<|s>ence of your mo<|s>t gratious eye/ wherby my mo<|s>t <|s>ymple
labours of <|s>mall and vtterly no condigne impo<~r>taunce coulde gete no ley-
<|s>er convenyent by your highne<|s><|s>es mo<|s>t p<~r>ofounde iugement to be loked
upo/ by the generall te<|s>tymony and commen repo<~r>te of all maner <|s>ons/
whiche haue ben admytted vnto your mo<|s>t gratious <|s>peche/ nat onely
your mo<|s>t humble <|s>ubiectes/ but al<|s>o the Amba<|s><|s>adours of all outwarde
p<~r>inces/ of all other p<|s>ons/ which at this p<~r>e<|s>ent tyme be lyueng/ with
in the boundes of your right ample domynions/ It <|s>hulde haue ben to
me mo<|s>t highly requi<|s>yte/ to haue made my mo<|s>t in<|s>taunt <|s>ute/ fo<~r> the
benygne aduy<|s>e of your noble graces mo<|s>te expert opynion in this be-
halfe/ afo<~r>e I shulde haue dared to take vpon me/ to dedycate this my
poo<~r>e labours vnto your highne<|s><|s>e/ whiche in the frenche tonge/ amon-
ge<|s>t your noble graces other manyfolde <|s>o<~r>tes of excellent erudytion
and lytterature/ haue al<|s>o in this tonge <|s>o clere and parfite a <|s>ight/ le<|s>t
that myne audacite fo<~r> want of dewe circum<|s>pection/ myght in any point
offende your hyghne<|s><|s>e. But with all dewe humylite and mo<|s>t lowly
A.iii.obeys-
obei<|s><|s>aunce/ I <|s>ubmytte bothe me and my poo<~r>e labours vnto your no-
ble graces mo<|s>t benigne co<~r>rection/ p<~r>ote<|s>tyng no maner thynge in my
hole wo<~r>ke/ to be eyther well o<~r> <|s>ufficiently done/ but that whiche your
highne<|s><|s>e/ as mo<|s>t wo<~r>thy iuge and clere di<|s>cerner in this behalfe/ <|s>hall
vouch<|s>afe to alowe & app<~r>ove/ Onely of this thyng/ puttyng your high
ne<|s><|s>e in rememb<~r>ance/ that where as be<|s>ydes the great nomb<~r>e of clerkes/
whiche befo<~r>e <|s>ea<|s>on of this mater haue w<~r>itten nowe <|s>ithe the beginnyng
of your mo<|s>t fo<~r>tunate and mo<|s>t <|s>perous raigne/ the right vertuous
and excellent p<~r>ince Thomas late duke of Northfolke/ hath commanded
the <|s>tudious clerke Alexand<~r>e Barkelay/ to embu<|s>y hym<|s>elfe about this
excercy<|s>e/ and that my <|s>ayd <|s>ynguler good lo<~r>de Charles Duke of Suf-
folke/ by cau<|s>e that my poo<~r>e labours required a longre tracte of tyme/
hath al<|s>o in the meane <|s>ea<|s>on encouraged mai<|s>ter etrus Wallen<|s>ys/
<|s>cole mai<|s>ter to his excellent yong <|s>onne the Erle of Lyncolne/ to <|s>hewe
his lernynge and opinion in this behalfe/ and that the <|s>ynguler clerke/
mai<|s>ter Gyles Dewe<|s> somtyme in<|s>tructour to your noble grace in this
<|s>elfe tong/ at the e<|s>peciall in<|s>taunce and reque<|s>t of cyvers of your highe
e<|s>tates and noblemen/ hath al<|s>o fo<~r> his partye w<~r>itten in this matter.
If any one of vs all/ whiche <|s>yns the begynnyng of your <|s>aid well fo<~r>tu-
ned raygne of this thyng haue w<~r>itten/ o<~r> we all amonge<|s>t vs/ haue by
our diligent labours nowe at the la<|s>t/ b<~r>ought the frenche tong vnder
any rules certayn & p<~r>ecept grammaticall/ lyke as the other th<~r>e fite ton-
ges be/ we haue nat onely done the thyng whiche by your noble graces
p<~r>ogenitous/ of all antiquite <|s>o moche hath ben de<|s>y<~r>ed/ that be<|s>ydes
all other maner polycies by them e<|s><|s>ayd/ whiche myght <|s>erve to the ad-
nauncement and fo<~r>d<~r>ance of that purpo<|s>e/ they never ce<|s><|s>ed to enco<~r>age
<|s>uche clerkes as were in they<~r> tymes/ to p<~r>ove and e<|s><|s>ay what they by
they<~r> dyligence in this matter myght do. But al<|s>o vnder the <|s>tudyous
tyme of your mo<|s>t <|s>perous raigne/ in whiche all ingenious exerci<|s>es/
thus hyghly do habounde/ we haue here within the lymit of your mo<|s>t
fo<~r>tunat obey<|s><|s>ance and domynions/ done the thynge whiche by the te-
<|s>timony of the excellent clerke/ mai<|s>ter Geffray Troy de Bourges (a
late writer of the frenche nation) in his boke intituled Champ Fleury/
was neuer yet amonge<|s>t them of that contrayes <|s>elfe hetherto <|s>o moche
as ones effectually attempted. In<|s>o moche that the <|s>ayd clerke/ about
the beginnyng of his boke/ <|s>pekyng of Hercules Gallicus o<~r> Francois
and <|s>hewynge the naturall inclination that the frenche men haue vnto
eloquence and facundite/ and howe they<~r> tong fo<~r> the mo<|s>t generall is
co<~r>rupted fo<~r> want of rules and p<~r>eceptes grammaticall/ and wi<|s><|s>hynge
that <|s>ome <|s>tudious clerke <|s>hulde by mean of his exho<~r>tation nowe take
the thyng in hande/ and fa<~r>dermo<~r>e reher<|s>yng the names of <|s>uche Au-
thours
thours whiche he e<|s>temeth in the frenche tong to be mo<|s>t excellent/ and
which he wolde chefely <|s>hulde be over vi<|s>yted and tho<~r>owe <|s>tudyed/ to-
gather they<~r> grammaticall rules out of/he hath fo<~r>tuned to name <|s>uche
and the very fame whiche my chaunce hath ben/ fo<~r> the aucto<~r>i<|s>yng and
co<~r>robo<~r>atyng of my <|s>aid thy<~r>de boke with all/ chefely to alledge/ to fo-
lowe and to leane vnto. Wherby mo<|s>t hyghe and pui<|s><|s>aunt p<~r>ince/ my
mo<|s>t enty<~r>ely honoured and mo<|s>t redouted <|s>ouveraygne/ amonge<|s>t the
other manifolde hyghe benifites/ whiche by your mo<|s>t p<~r>ovident cure
and diligent circum<|s>pection/ you dayle myni<|s>ter vnto your mo<|s>t hum-
ble and mo<|s>t obei<|s><|s>aunt <|s>ubiectes/ and amonge<|s>t the other manifolde <|s>o<~r>-
tes of erudition and litterature/ whiche by your highne<|s><|s>es mo<|s>t amya-
ble exho<~r>tation/ and e<|s>pecially by evident exemple in your owne noble
per<|s>on/ as moche flouri<|s>he nowe vnder your ryght ample dominions/
as tho<~r>owe the re<|s>idewe of Europa/ you haue al<|s>o p<~r>ocured and p<~r>oui-
ded fo<~r> them the parfit knowlege of the frenche tong/ of all antiquite by
your noble p<~r>ogenitours/ <|s>o moche couited and de<|s>ired/ & by this mean
where as your <|s>ayd <|s>ubiectes fo<~r> your manifolde great benefites vnto
them <|s>hewed/ be as moche bounden vnto your noble grace/ as ever were
<|s>ubiectes vnto they<~r> liege and <|s>overayne lo<~r>de/ by reea<|s>on of this great
commodite/ p<~r>ocured al<|s>o by your hyghne<|s><|s>e/ that they may nowe in the
tyme of your mo<|s>t happy raigne/ thus ea<|s>ely attanye vnto the frenche
tong/ and fo<~r> <|s>o moche as it hath plea<|s>ed your hyghne<|s><|s>e/ of your mo<|s>t
excellent goodne<|s><|s>e/ thus benygnely and thankfully to accept my poo<~r>e
labours employed in this behalfe/ your noble grace hath yet mo<~r>e high
lye and mo<~r>e largely bounden/ both them/ and of all others lyuyng mo<|s>t
e<|s>pecially me/ to p<~r>ay fo<~r> your p<~r>o<|s>perous e<|s>tate long to endure/ in all
felicite and wo<~r>ldly welth amonge<|s>t vs. A M E N.
Here foloweth the copy of the kynges graces
p<~r>yuilege/ graunted vnto the Authour fo<~r>
the <|s>pace of <|s>euyn peces.
Henry by the grace of god/ kynge of Englande
and of France/ defen<|s>o<~r> of the faythe/ and lo<~r>de of Irelande.
To all maner our officers/ myny<|s>ters and <|s>ubiectes gre-
tynge. Where as our tru<|s>ty and ryght welbeloued <|s>ubiecte
mai<|s>ter Iohn Pal<|s>graue vpon occa<|s>ion that we afo<~r>e this <|s>ea<|s>on gave
hym in commandement/ to teche our mo<|s>t dere and mo<|s>t entierly beloued
<|s>u<|s>ter quene Mary douagere of France in the french tong/ hath made
a boke entituled and called/ Le<|s>clari<|s><|s>ement de la langue Francoy<|s>e/
whiche euidently appereth vnto vs and our coun<|s>aile/ to be made with
a great
a great and long continued dyligence/ and to be very nece<|s><|s>arye/ p<~r>ofi-
table and expedient/ as well fo<~r> the b<~r>yngyng vp of the youth of our no-
bylite/ as fo<~r> all other maner par<|s>ons our <|s>ubiectes to attayne the par-
fyte knowlege of the frenche tong by/ whiche <|s>ayd boke/ our <|s>ayd welbe-
loued <|s>ubiect/ be<|s>ydes his great labours/ paynes/ and tyme there about
employed/ he hath al<|s>o at his p<~r>oper co<|s>te and charge put in p<~r>ynt/ we
greatly moued and <|s>tered by dewe con<|s>yderation of his <|s>ayd long tyme
and great dyligence about htis good and very nece<|s><|s>arye purpo<|s>e em-
ployed/ and al<|s>o of his <|s>ayd great co<|s>tes and charges be<|s>towed about
the imp<~r>intyng of the <|s>ame/ haue liberally and benignely graunted vnto
the <|s>ayd mai<|s>ter Palsgraue our fauo<~r>able letters of p<~r>iuilege/ concer-
nyng his <|s>ayd boke/ called Le<|s>clarci<|s><|s>ement de la langue francoy<|s>e/ fo<~r>
the <|s>pace and terme of <|s>euyn peces next and immedyatly after the date
hereof en<|s>wyng/ Straytly chargyng and commandyng/ all maner our
<|s>ubiectes/ boke/ <|s>ellars o<~r> other/ whiche medell with the fayte of p<~r>yn-
tyng o<~r> <|s>ellyng of bokes/ that they ne none of them/ nother p<~r>int no<~r> cau<|s>e
to be prynted/ nother within this our realme/ no<~r> el<|s>where out of our
realme any nomb<~r>e of bokes/ after the copy of the <|s>ayd Le<|s>larci<|s><|s>ement
no<~r> after any m aner tables/ o<~r> other part o<~r> po<~r>tion of the <|s>ayd boke/ no<~r>
bye no maner hole bokes/ no<~r> part of them/ whiche <|s>hal be p<~r>ynted any
where out of our realme/ by any other p<~r>inces <|s>ubiectes/ vpon payne of
our hygh di<|s>plea<|s>ure and confi<|s>cation and fo<~r>faycture of all maner <|s>uche
bokes/ outher p<~r>inted o<~r> bought/ contrary to this our plea<|s>ure/ we wyll our <|s>aid
<|s>ubiectes in this behalfe offendyng/ <|s>hall paye the one halfe fo<~r> our v<|s>e
unto the next officer of iu<|s>tice adioynyng vnto the place where the boke
<|s>hall fo<~r>tune <|s>o to be founde/ and the other halfe to go to the v<|s>e and p<~r>o-
fyte of our <|s>ayd welbeloued <|s>ubiect mai<|s>ter Iohn Pal<|s>graue/ wyllyng
and o<~r>daynyng fo<~r>thermo<~r>e/ that in ca<|s>e any maner alien o<~r> <|s>tranger/
medlyng with the faite of p<~r>intyng o<~r> boke <|s>ellyng/ o<~r> any other <|s>one/
b<~r>ing any maner bokes p<~r>inted after the <|s>ayd mai<|s>ter Palsgraues copy/
o<~r> any parte there of/ in to this our realme here to make <|s>ale & vtterance
of them/ duryng & <|s>ayd terme & <|s>pace of .vii. peces/ that he o<~r> they <|s>hall
con in <|s>uche lyke lo<|s><|s>e and penalte/ as we haue here afo<~r>e o<~r>day-
ned of our owne <|s>ubiect/ fo<~r> <|s>uche is our vtter wyll
and plea<|s>ure in this behalfe. yeuen vnder
our <|s>ygnet/ at our maner of
Ampthyll the <|s>econde
day of Sep-
tember/
the .xxii. yere of our raygne.
An-
And<~r>ewe Baynton/ to the ryght noble and excellent
yong gentilmen/ my lo<~r>de Thomas Hawarde/ my lo<~r>de Geralde/
and mai<|s>ter Charles Blont/ <|s>onne and hey<~r>e to the lo<~r>de
Montioye/ his late <|s>cole felowes.
WHere as I perceyue by your ryght louyng let-
ters that diuers par<|s>ons/ whiche were moche de<|s>y<~r>ous of
our mai<|s>ters C<|s>clarci<|s><|s>ement de la langue francoy<|s>e/ afo<~r>e
he had p<~r>e<|s>ented it to the kyng hyghne<|s><|s>e. Nowe that his
boke is publi<|s>hed & to be had amonge<|s>t the p<~r>intars/ whan
they loke vpon the greatne<|s><|s>e of the volume/ they be therby in party di<|s>-
couraged/ and thynke that the mo<~r>e the wo<~r>ke is in bygne<|s><|s>e/ the great-
tar labours mu<|s>t of the lernars be therto required. But I am <|s>ure/
that you whiche here in knowe our mai<|s>ters hole intente and con<|s>yde-
ration/ haue at the full/ <|s>ati<|s>fied and quieted all <|s>uche par<|s>ons/ whiche
you haue herde vnder that maner rea<|s>on/ fo<~r> as you haue well by hym
parceyued/ he hath willyngly and a purpo<|s>e moued of good and tend<~r>e
zele/ taken in this matter the greattar paynes vpon him/ to ea<|s>e and fo<~r>-
ther all maner par<|s>ons of our nation/ whiche be de<|s>yrous of that lan-
gayge/ of they<~r> great paynes and <|s>tudies/ whiche els of nece<|s><|s>ite mu<|s>t
nedes haue ben required in this behalfe. And where as afo<~r>e his tyme/
men of our nation/ dyd in maner di<|s>payre/ that the frenche tong coulde
euerby any meanes be gotten/ <|s>aufe onely by an impo<~r>tune and long
continued exerci<|s>e/ and that begon in yong and tender age/ our mai<|s>ter
hath here in done <|s>o moche that ne the wyll <|s>eke may fynde/ and in a b<~r>e<|>fe
tyme attayne to his vttere<|s>t de<|s>yre/ and that nat onely concernyng the
parfyte knowlege & redy v<|s>e of the tong/ but al<|s>o b<~r>efely and with smale
payne to gete they<~r> naturall p<~r>onunciatyon/ whiche here afo<~r>e <|s>ea<|s>on
hath ben <|s>uppo<|s>ed amonge<|s>t vs in maner a thyng impo<|s><|s>yble/ howe be
it here in to knowlege the very truthe/ rather it is to be <|s>uppo<|s>ed that
<|s>uche of our nation as <|s>hall effectually be de<|s>yrous of the frenche tong/
<|s>hall thynke his boke to lytell and in <|s>ome thynges to moche ab<~r>euiate/
than in any one poynt <|s>ufluou<|s>ly to moche/ whan after the rules of
ryght p<~r>onunciation/ and the p<~r>eceptes grammaticall of this tong ones
knowen/ whiche two thynges in compari<|s>on to the hole volume be con-
tayned in a ryght <|s>male <|s>pace/ and than to p<~r>acty<|s>e tho<|s>e rules fo<~r> to en-
ioye the frute of them/ <|s>hall fo<~r>tune by they<~r> owne <|s>tudye to tran<|s>late a-
ny <|s>entence o<~r> matter out of our tong in to frenche/ and <|s>hall parchaunce
loke fo<~r> a wo<~r>de amonge<|s>te the vocabuli<|s>tes/ whiche <|s>hulde <|s>erue fo<~r>
they<~r> purpo<|s>e/ and <|s>hall nat <|s>trayght and all redy at hande fynd out the
thyng they loke fo<~r>/ But to ea<|s>e & <|s>ati<|s>fye the lernar in that behalfe/ our
mai<|s>ter
mai<|s>ter/ as you knowe/ hath often <|s>hewed vs two generall rules/ one/
nat onely expedient fo<~r> this purpo<|s>e/ but al<|s>o b<~r>efly to haue a great plen-
ty of <|s>ub<|s>tantiues and adjectiues in the frenche tong/ fo<~r> if any nowne
of many <|s>yllables v<|s>ed in our tong/ app<~r>oche any thyng towarde latine
commenly that wo<~r>de is al<|s>o frenche/ fo<~r> lyke as the frenche men bo<~r>owe
they<~r> wo<~r>des immediatly of the latines/ <|s>o do we bo<~r>owe a great nom-
ber of our <|s>ub<|s>tantiues and adiectiues immediatly of the frenche men/
whiche thyng fo<~r> <|s>ubstantiues/ he declareth <|s>ome thyng at the length/
in his thy<~r>de boke/ in the .lv.lvi. and .lvii. chapiters/ befo<~r>e the table of
<|s>ub<|s>tantiues/ and fo<~r> adiectiues in his <|s>ayd thy<~r>de boke in his annota-
tions vpon the .vi. accident belongyng vnto adiectiues/ whiche be<|s>et
next befo<~r>e the table. And yet haue we fardermo<~r>e/ as he hat euidenly
p<~r>oued vnto vs/ a great nomb<~r>e of other <|s>ubstantiues and adiectues/
whiche indede be very frenche wo<~r>des/ <|s>aufe that our Engly<|s>he tong
hath <|s>ome thyng altred they<~r> later terminations/ but after they<~r> trewe
o<~r>thographic and ryght p<~r>onunciatyon/ be ones knowen/ they be by any
par<|s>on of our tong parceyued/ and al<|s>o lerned atones/ and that foR euer
after. So that if the lernar whan he begynneth to p<~r>acti<|s>e/ <|s>hall fo<~r>tune
to my<|s><|s>e of any wo<~r>de in the tables of <|s>ub<|s>tantiues o<~r> adiectiues/ lette
hym fy<~r><|s>t haue recours vnto this general rule/ afo<~r>e he iudge the tables
vn<|s>ufficient. An other rule he hath al<|s>o gyuen vs/ that if any parte of
<|s>peche fo<~r>tune to be vn<|s>et out in his owne table/ let the lernar <|s>eke out
an other of lyke <|s>ens and <|s>yngnifycation/ be it nowne/ verbe/ aduerbe/
o<~r> any other parte of <|s>peche that is wantyng/ and he <|s>hall by that mea-
nes be compitently <|s>ati<|s>fyed/ and <|s>o be able to make fo<~r>th the <|s>entence
that he <|s>hall fo<~r> the tyme fo<~r>tune to haue in hande. Do we be it as you haue
herde our mai<|s>ter dyuers tymes <|s>ay/ where as it is aboue a thou<|s>ande
yeres <|s>ens clerkes haue laboured to <|s>et fo<~r>th the latin tong/ and dayly
yet in that kynde of <|s>tudy fynde matter ynough to exercy<|s>e they<~r> witte
with all/ where by continually/ they whiche <|s>uccede/ indeuour then <|s>ome
thyng to adde vnto the diligence of <|s>uche as were befo<~r>e them/ lyke as
to our mai<|s>ters <|s>elfe fo<~r> his partie in that behalfe hath chaun<|s>ed/ fo<~r> af-
ter he had in commandement by our mo<|s>t redouted <|s>oueraygne/ To in-
<|s>tructe the duke of Richemontes grace/ in the latin tong/ he b<~r>ought all
the hole Analogie of the Romane <|s>peche/ in to.ix.letters/ that is to <|s>ay/
they<~r> fyue vowelles/ and M/ A/ R/ S/ con<|s>onantes/ whiche thyng was
neuer/ as yet/ of no clerke that he wottcth of afo<~r>e his tyme ob<|s>erued.
Sauyng that Marcus Varro/ whiche was in Tullyes tyme/ in his
thy<~r>de boke de analogia/ in very darke and b<~r>efe wo<~r>des/ <|s>heweth that
Aristotles Parmen<|s>ius/ & Dioni<|s>us Sidonius <|s>uppo<|s>ed that <|s>uche
a thyng was po<|s><|s>ible to be b<~r>ought to pa<|s><|s>e of the Greke tong. It is then
no mar
no marueyle/ thoughe this volume of oure may<|s>ters/ whiche leaueth
nothynge vnattempted that ought to be de<|s>yred/ fo<~r> the grammaticall -
fection of the frenche tonge/ and therto dothe his dyligence/ to declare
wo<~r>de fo<~r> wo<~r>de/ and ph<~r>a<|s>ys fo<~r> ph<~r>a<|s>is/ tho<~r>owe bothe the tonges/ do
nat in euery poynt vtterly <|s>uffi<|s>e and <|s>ati<|s>y. Sens he hath ben the fir<|s>t
outher of our nation o<~r> of the french mennes <|s>elfe/ that hath <|s>o farre wa-
ded in all maner thinges nece<|s><|s>ary/ to reduce that tong vnder rules cer-
tayne/ And of howe great a difficulty it is amonge<|s>t <|s>o many thou<|s>ande
wo<~r>des/ in bothe the tonges to fo<~r>e<|s>ee/ that vtterly none be wantyng/
<|s>eyng that he hath al<|s>o ben the fir<|s>t/ which in that kynde of exerci<|s>e hath
begon to labour/ <|s>uche as haue <|s>tudied in the th<~r>e parfyte tonges/ and
haue experience howe they<~r> vocabuli<|s>tes/ whiche haue ben of <|s>o many
yeres/ and by <|s>o <|s>ond<~r>y clerkes agatheryng/ and yet to this day fully do
nat <|s>ati<|s>fy/ can in this behalfe <|s>uffyctently decerne. But as touchyng
his rules/ do we the frenche tong ought to be p<~r>onoun<|s>ed/ and to knowe
the parfyte analogie and congruite of the frenche tong/ that is to <|s>aye
to decerne the changes/ whiche happen in that langage by rea<|s>on of di-
uer<|s>ite/ in ca<|s>e/ gender/ nomber/ mode/ tens/ and par<|s>on/ and to knowe
by <|s>ome certayne examples/ howe to coniugate they<~r> verbes parfyte/ and
what verbes be with them anomales/ and whiche be defectiues/ By
cau<|s>e his labours can in no wy<|s>e by p<~r>ofitable to no maner <|s>on/ except
he haue in all the<|s>e thynges/ at the lee<|s>t <|s>ome generall knoweledge/ o<~r>
euer he can be hable by his owne <|s>tudye/ to tran<|s>late any <|s>entence out of
our tong in to frenche. To do vnto all maner par<|s>ones of our natyon
de<|s>yrous to haue the frenche tong/ yet a farther and mo<~r>e thankefull
plea<|s>nre/ he hath b<~r>ought all the pythe and effect of his two fy<~r><|s>t bokes
in to a very <|s>male roume and quantite/ whiche compendious tracty<|s>e
if it be but ones rede ouer/ the lernar <|s>hall incontinently haue <|s>o euident
and clere a lyght in the frenche tong/ that he <|s>hall fo<~r> euer after be pa<|s>te
all maner my<|s>tru<|s>t o<~r> di<|s>courayge in this behalfe/ and parceyue euy-
dently/ that a lytell labour <|s>hall <|s>uffy<|s>e hym to haue the full
frute and commodite of this his hole volume/ of whiche
b<~r>efe traicti<|s>e/ <|s>o moche expedient and com-
modyous fo<~r> this purpo<|s>e/ I
<|s>ende you here a
Copy.
A brefe
A b<~r>efe introduction of the authour/ fo<~r> the
mo<~r>e parfyte vnder<|s>tandyng of his fy<~r><|s>t and
<|s>econde bokes here folowyng.
THe diffyculte of the frenche tong/ whiche ma-
keth it <|s>o harde to be lerned by them of our nation/ re<|s>teth
chefely in th<~r>e thynges/ In the diuer<|s>yte of p<~r>onunciation/
that is betwene vs and them/ in they<~r> analogie and maner
of congruite/ where in they be moche mo<~r>e parfyte and ex-
qui<|s>yte than we be/ and moche mo<~r>e app<~r>oche towardes the parfection
of the latin tong/ than we do/ And thy<~r>dly in they<~r> p<~r>opertes of <|s>pekyng
where in they<~r> ph<~r>a<|s>ys be dyfferent frome ours/ and letteth vs/ that
thoughe we <|s>hulde gyue wo<~r>de fo<~r> wo<~r>de/ yet the <|s>ens <|s>hulde moche dif
fer betwene our tong and they<~r>s/ of whiche th<~r>e thynges here b<~r>efely
and by maner of an introduction to entreate. The frenche men in they<~r>
p<~r>onunciation do chefly regarde and couet th<~r>e thynges. To be armo-
nious to they<~r> <|s>pekyng. To be b<~r>efe and <|s>odayne in foundyng of they<~r>
wo<~r>des/ auoydyng all maner of har<|s>hene<|s><|s>e in they<~r> p<~r>onunciation/ and
thirdly to gyue euery wo<~r>de that they abyde and re<|s>te vpon/ they<~r> mo<|s>t
audible <|s>ounde. To be armonyous in they<~r> <|s>pekyng/ they v<|s>e one thyng
which none other nation dothe/ but onely they/ that is to <|s>ay/ they make
a maner of modulation inwardly/ fo<~r> they fo<~r>me certayne of they<~r> vo-
welles in they<~r> b<~r>e<|s>t/ and <|s>uffre nat the <|s>ounde of them to pa<|s><|s>e out by the
mouthe/ but to a<|s><|s>ende from the b<~r>e<|s>t <|s>traight vp to the palate of the mouth;
and <|s>o by reflection y<|s><|s>ueth the <|s>ounde of them by the no<|s>e. To be b<~r>efe
and <|s>odayne/ and to auoyde all maner har<|s>hene<|s><|s>e/ whiche myght hap-
pen whan many con<|s>onantes come betwene the vowelles/ If they all
<|s>hulde haue they<~r> di<|s>tyncte <|s>ounde. Mo<|s>t commenly/ they neuer v<|s>e to
<|s>ounde pa<|s>t one onely con<|s>onant betwene two vowelles/ though fo<~r> ke-
pyng of trewe o<~r>thographic/ they v<|s>e to w<~r>ite as many con<|s>onates/ as
the latine wo<~r>des haue/ whiche they<~r> frenche wo<~r>des come out of/ and
fo<~r> the <|s>ame cau<|s>e/ they gyue <|s>omtyme vnto they<~r> con<|s>onantes but a <|s>leight
and remi<|s><|s>he <|s>ounde/ and farre mo<~r>e dyuer<|s>ly p<~r>onounce them/ than the
latines do. To gyue euery wo<~r>de that they abyde vpon his mo<|s>t audi-
ble <|s>ounde/ where as in the Greke tong/ the accent hath th<~r>e dyuers pla-
ces/ that is to <|s>ay/ the la<|s>t <|s>yllable/ the la<|s>t <|s>aue one/ and the thy<~r>de <|s>ylla-
ble from the ende/ and in the latin tong/ at the lee<|s>t hath twayne/ that is
to <|s>ay/ the la<|s>t <|s>yllable <|s>aue one/ o<~r> the thy<~r>de <|s>yllable from thende/ the
frenche men iudgyng a wo<~r>de to be mo<|s>t parfaytly herde/ whan his la<|s>t
end is <|s>ounded hyghe<|s>t/ v<|s>e generally to gyue they<~r> accent vpon the la<|s>t
<|s>yllable onely/ except whan they make modulation inwardly/ fo<~r> than
gyuyng
gyueng they<~r> accent vpon the la<|s>t <|s>yllable <|s>aue one/ and at the la<|s>t <|s>yllable
of <|s>uche wo<~r>des/ they <|s>odaynly dep<~r>e<|s><|s>e they<~r> voyce agayne/ fo<~r>myng
the vowell in the b<~r>e<|s>t/ as I haue afo<~r>e di<|s>cribed. But to the intent that
the<|s>e thynges v<|s>ed of the frenche men in they<~r> p<~r>onounciation/ and all
others concernyng the very grounde of they<~r> analogie/ may nat <|s>eme
vtterly fo<~r>tuyt and done by chaunce/ but rather by <|s>ome <|s>ecret mi<|s>te<~r>y
gyuen by maner of a <|s>yngular p<~r>iuiledge vnto this mo<|s>t ch<~r>i<|s>tened na-
tion. Let vs <|s>e howe ternarius numerus/ that is to <|s>ay/ the nomb<~r>e of
th<~r>e/ whiche of all other is mo<|s>t parfyte/ excellent/ and al<|s>o my<|s>tycall/
dothe <|s>ecretly with them/ and tho<~r>owly wo<~r>ke in this behalfe.
Fo<~r> the <|s>oundyng of theyr vowelles.
Where as I haue <|s>ayd that to be the mo<~r>e armonius they make
a maner of modulation inwardly/ that thyng happeneth in
the <|s>oundyng of th<~r>e of they<~r> vowelles onely A/ C/ and D/ and
that nat vniuer<|s>ally/ but onely <|s>o often as they come befo<~r>e
M/ o<~r> N/ in one <|s>yllable/ o<~r> whan C/ is in the la<|s>t <|s>yllable/ the wo<~r>de
nat hauyng his accent vpon hym/ remyttyng the lernar fo<~r> examples/
bycau<|s>e of b<~r>euite/ vnto the <|s>econde/ thy<~r>de/ and fyfth chapiters of my
fy<~r><|s>t boke/ <|s>o that the<|s>e th<~r>e letters M/ N/ or C/ fynall/ nat hauyng the
accent vpon hym/ be the very and onely cau<|s>es why the<|s>e th<~r>e vowelles
A/C/D/ be fo<~r>med in the b<~r>e<|s>t and <|s>ounded by the note. And fo<~r> <|s>o mo-
che as of nece<|s><|s>yte/ to fo<~r>me the different <|s>ounde of tho<|s>e th<~r>e vowelles
they mu<|s>t nedes at they<~r> fy<~r><|s>t fo<~r>myng open they<~r> mowth mo<~r>e o<~r> le<|s><|s>e/
yet whan the vowell ones fo<~r>med in the b<~r>e<|s>t/ a<|s>cendeth vpwardes and
mu<|s>t haue M/ o<~r> n/ <|s>ounded with hym/ they b<~r>yng they<~r> chawes to
getherwardes agayne/ and in <|s>o doyng they <|s>eme to <|s>ounde an v/ and
make in maner of A/ and D/ dipthonges/ whiche happeneth by ray<|s>on of clo<|s>yng of they<~r> mowth agayne/ to come to the places where M/ and
N/ be fo<~r>med/ but chefely bycau<|s>e no parte of the vowell at his exp<~r>e<|s>-
<|s>yng <|s>hulde pa<|s><|s>e fo<~r>th by the mowth/ where as els the frenchemen <|s>ounde
the <|s>ame th<~r>e vowelles/ in all thynges lyke as the Italiens do/ o<~r> we of
our nation/ whiche <|s>ounde our vowelles aryght/ and as fo<~r> in they<~r> vo
well I/ is no diffyculty no<~r> difference from the Italien <|s>ounde/ <|s>auyng
that <|s>o often as the<|s>e th<~r>e letters I/L/L/ o<~r> I/G/N/ come befo<~r>e any of
the fy<~r><|s>t th<~r>e vowels A/C/ o<~r> D/ they <|s>ounde an I/ b<~r>efely and confu<|s>ely
betwene the la<|s>t con<|s>onant and the vowell folowyng/ where as in dede
none is w<~r>itten/ fo<~r> examples remyttyng the lernar to the <|s>euynth chapi-
ters of my fy<~r><|s>t boke/ whiche <|s>oundynge of I/ where he is nat w<~r>itten
they recompence in they<~r> v/ fo<~r> thoughe they w<~r>yte hym after the<|s>e th<~r>e
B con<|s>onant
con<|s>onantes F/ G/ and D/ yet do they onely <|s>ounde the vowell next fo-
lowyng v/ as I declare in the .ix.chapiter of the fy<~r><|s>t boke. So that fo<~r>
the mo<|s>t generalte/ the frenche men <|s>ounde all they<~r> fyue vowelles lyke
as the Italiens do/ except onely they<~r> v/ whiche euer <|s>o often as they v<|s>e
fo<~r> a vowell alone hath with them <|s>uche a <|s>ounde as we gyne this dip-
thong ew/ in our tong in the<|s>e wo<~r>des/ rewe an herbe/ a mewe fo<~r> a hawke/ a clewe of th<~r>ede.
Fo<~r> the <|s>oundyng of they<~r> diphthonges.
And as touchyng they<~r> diphthonges be<|s>ydes the <|s>ixe/ whiche befo<~r>-
med by addyng of the two la<|s>t vowelles vnto the th<~r>e fy<~r><|s>t/ as ai/ei/oi/
av/ev/ov/ they make al<|s>o a <|s>euynth by addyng of the two la<|s>t vowelles
together vi/ vnto whiche they gyue <|s>uche a <|s>ounde as we do vnto wy/
in the<|s>e wo<~r>des/ a <|s>wyne/ I twyne/ I dwyne/ <|s>oundyng v/ and y/ toge-
ther and nat di<|s>tynctly/ and as fo<~r> the other <|s>ixe haue <|s>uche <|s>ounde with
them as they haue in latin except th<~r>e/ fo<~r> in <|s>tede of ai/ they <|s>ounde mo<|s>t
commenly ow/ as we do in the<|s>e wo<~r>des/ abowe/ a crowe/ a <|s>nowe/ re-
mityng al<|s>o the lernar fo<~r> the mo<~r>e certaynte herof vnto my <|s>ayd fy<~r><|s>t
boke/ where I <|s>peke of the diphthonges. All whiche diuer<|s>yte v<|s>ed by
them in <|s>ounding of they<~r> vowelles and diphthonges/ an accu<|s>tumed
erre may euidently ob<|s>crue that they thus do apurpo<|s>e/ nat onely to be
the mo<~r>e armonious and play<|s>ant in <|s>oundyng of they<~r> wo<~r>des/ but al<|s>o
to auoyde all maner diffo<~r>myte whiche myght happen by rea<|s>on of any
barbarous <|s>ounde. Whiche thynge <|s>o moche they <|s>tudye to ob<|s>erue that
they p<~r>eferre it <|s>ometyme befo<~r>e they<~r> congruite/ as I <|s>hewe herafter in
my <|s>econde introduction/ where I <|s>peke of they<~r> grammaticall conco<~r>d
And fo<~r> the <|s>ame cau<|s>e/ to auoyde the concurrence of <|s>eperat vowelles in
di<|s>tyncte wo<~r>des/ they be mo<~r>e curious in the ob<|s>eruyng of the fygure
called Apo<|s>trophe/ than the Grekes be them<|s>elfe/ as I declare from the
xlix.chapiter con<|s>equently to the .lv. in my fy<~r><|s>t boke.
Fo<~r> the <|s>ounding of they<~r> con<|s>onantes.
And nowe as touchyng the <|s>econde poynte whiche is to be b<~r>efe and
<|s>odayne without any maner of har<|s>hne<|s><|s>e in they<~r> nounciation/ what
con<|s>onantes <|s>o euer they w<~r>ite in any wo<~r>de fo<~r> the kepyng of trewe o<~r>-
thographie/ yet <|s>o moche couyt they in redyng o<~r> <|s>pekyng to haue all
they<~r> vowelles and diphthong clerly herde/ that betwene two vowell
whether they chaunce in one wo<~r>de alone/ o<~r> as one wo<~r>de fo<~r>tuneth to
folowe after an other/ they neuer <|s>ounde but one con<|s>onant atones/ in
<|s>o moche that if two different con<|s>onantes/ that is to <|s>ay/ nat beyng both
of one
of one <|s>o<~r>te come together betwene two vowelles/ they leue the fy<~r><|s>t of
them vn<|s>ounded/ and if th<~r>e con<|s>onantes come together/ they euer leue
two of the fy<~r><|s>t vn<|s>ounded/ puttyng here in as I haue <|s>ayd/ no differ??ce
whether the con<|s>onantes thus come together in one wo<~r>de alone/ o<~r> ??s
the wo<~r>des do folowe one another/ fo<~r> many tymes they<~r> wo<~r>des ende
in two con<|s>onantes/ bycau<|s>e they take awaye the la<|s>t vowell of the la-
tin wo<~r>de/ as Lorps/ commeth of Lorpus/ Temps of Tempus/ and
<|s>uche lyke/ whiche two con<|s>onantes <|s>hal be lefte vn<|s>ounded/ if the next
wo<~r>de folowyng begyn with a con<|s>onant/ as well as if th<~r>e con<|s>onantes
<|s>huld fo<~r>tune to come together in a wo<~r>de by hym<|s>elfe. But yet in this
thyng to <|s>hewe al<|s>o that they fo<~r>get nat they<~r> ternatius numerus of all
they<~r> con<|s>onantes/ they haue from this rule p<~r>iuyleged onely th<~r>e/ M/
N/ and K/ whiche neuerle<|s>e they<~r> <|s>ounde where <|s>o euer they be founde
w<~r>itten/ Except onely A/ whan he commeth in the thy<~r>de par<|s>on plurell
of verbes after C/ fo<~r> the particuler certaynte al<|s>o of this thyng/ remit
tyng the lernar to the .xxv.xxvi.xxvii. and .xlviii. chapiters of the fy<~r><|s>t
boke. So that where as afo<~r>e <|s>ea<|s>on this <|s>eyng of con<|s>onantes w<~r>it-
ten fo<~r> kepyng of trewe o<~r>thographie/ and leuyng of them vn<|s>ounded
in p<~r>onounciation/ hath <|s>emed vnto vs of our nation a thyng of <|s>o great
diffyculte/ by cau<|s>e we neuer hetherto had no maner rule to <|s>taye vs in
this behalfe/ that vnneth an impo<~r>tune labour/ and that taken in youth
by a hole yere o<~r> twayne/ was <|s>uffycient by v<|s>e to attayne hervnto. In
<|s>o moche that where as there be hunderdes in this realme/ whiche with
a lytell labour employed and by the ayde of latyn/ do <|s>o parfytly vnder-
<|s>tande this tonge/ that they be able to tran<|s>late at the fy<~r><|s>t <|s>yght/ any
thyng out of the frenche tong/ in to ours/ yet haue they thought the thing
<|s>o <|s>trange to leue the con<|s>onantes vn<|s>ounded/ whiche they <|s>awe w<~r>it-
ten in <|s>uche bokes as they <|s>tudyed/ that they haue vtterly neglected the
frenche mennes maner of p<~r>onounciation/ and <|s>o rede frenche as they<~r>
fanta<|s>y o<~r> opinion dyde lede them/ and by that meanes parceyuyng in
them <|s>elfe a want and <|s>waruyng from the trewth/ whiche they wot nat
howe to amende/ vtterly leue to <|s>peke o<~r> exercy<|s>e the langayge/ as a
thyng whiche they di<|s>payre of/ where as nowe the very grounde and con-
<|s>yderatiou of the frenche men in this behalfe/ ones knowen/ it hath ben
p<~r>oued by experience/ that ii is but a <|s>enyghtes labour/ o<~r> at the mo<|s>te
a fourtnyghtes to lerne this poynt concernyng to they<~r> p<~r>onounciatyon
and to be <|s>ure herof fo<~r> euer.
fo<~r> the kepyng of trewe accent.
And nowe to <|s>peke of they<~r> thy<~r>de poynt/ where I haue <|s>hewed that
the frenchemen <|s>tudye to gyue euery wo<~r>de that they abide and re<|s>te
B.ii. vpon
vpon/ they<~r> mo<|s>t audible <|s>ounde. The hole rea<|s>on they<~r> accent is groun-
ded chefely vpon th<~r>e poyntes/ fy<~r><|s>t there is no wo<~r>de of one <|s>yllable
whiche with them hath any accent/ o<~r> that they v<|s>e to pau<|s>e vpon/ and
that is one great cau<|s>e why they<~r> tong <|s>emeth to vs <|s>o b<~r>efe and <|s>odayn
and <|s>o harde to be vnder<|s>tanded whan it is <|s>poken/ e<|s>pecially of they<~r>
pay<|s>antes o<~r> commen people/ fo<~r> thoughe there come neuer <|s>o many wo<~r>-
des of one <|s>yllable together/ they p<~r>onounce them nat di<|s>tinctly a <|s>onder
as the latines do/ but <|s>ounde them all vnder one voyce and tenour/ and
neuer re<|s>t no<~r> pau<|s>e vpon any of them/ except the commyng next vnto a
poynt be the cau<|s>e therof. Seconde/ euery wo<~r>de of many <|s>yllables
hath his acent vpon the la<|s>t <|s>yllable/ but yet that nat with<|s>tandynge
they v<|s>e vpon no <|s>uche wo<~r>de to pau<|s>e/ except the commyng next vnto a
poynt be the cau<|s>er therof/ and this is one great thyng whiche inclineth
the frenchemen <|s>o moche to p<~r>onounce the latin tong amy<|s><|s>e/ whiche con-
trary neuer gyue they<~r> accent on the la<|s>t <|s>yllable. The thy<~r>de poynte is
but an exception from the <|s>econde/ fo<~r> whan the la<|s>t <|s>yllable of a frenche
wo<~r>de endeth in C/ the <|s>yllable next afo<~r>e him mu<|s>t haue the accent/ and
yet is nat this rule euer generall/ fo<~r> if a frenche wo<~r>de ende in Te/ o<~r>
haue after C/ o<~r> be a p<~r>eterit partyciple of the fy<~r><|s>t coniugation/ he
<|s>hall haue his accent vpon the l<|s>t <|s>yllable/ acco<~r>dyng to the <|s>econde rule/
fo<~r> the mo<~r>e certayne knowledge al<|s>o here of/ remyttyng the lernar to
the .lvi. chapiter and the re<|s>ydewe next folowyng vnto the .lx. chapiter
of my fy<~r><|s>t boke.
Whan a vowell <|s>halbe p<~r>onounced long o<~r> <|s>ho<~r>t.
But as touchyng to knowe whan a vowell <|s>halbe with them longe
o<~r> <|s>ho<~r>t in his p<~r>onunciation/ I <|s>uppo<|s>e there be no tong that hath here
in a mo<~r>e playn and <|s>ymple con<|s>yderation/ than the frenche men haue.
Fo<~r> whan they leue any con<|s>onant o<~r> con<|s>onantes vn<|s>ounded/ whiche
folowe a vowell that <|s>hulde haue the accent/ if they pau<|s>e vpon hym by
rea<|s>on of commyng next vnto a poynt/ he <|s>halbe long in p<~r>onounciation/
So that there is no vowell with them/ whiche of hym<|s>elfe is long in
they<~r> tong/ fo<~r> the mo<~r>e particuler knoledge here of/ remittyng the ler-
nar al<|s>o to the .lxii. chapiter of my fy<~r><|s>t boke/ and as fo<~r> Encletica I
note no mo but onely the p<~r>imatiue p<~r>onownes of the fy<~r><|s>t and <|s>econde
par<|s>ones <|s>yngular/ whan they folowe the verbe that they do gouerne.
So that albeit that the frenchemennes p<~r>onounciation be neuer <|s>o diffe-
rent from others/ In <|s>o moche that it hath gyuen occa<|s>yon to clerkes of
other nations to <|s>ay they<~r> plea<|s>ure of the tong/ yet if the con<|s>yderations
whiche hath moued them <|s>o to do/ be indifferently con<|s>yd<~r>ed/ they ry<|s>e
nat vpon
nat vpon a barbarus rudene<|s><|s>e but rather of a great/ curio<|s>yte to make
they<~r> <|s>peche mo<~r>e commendable/ but that all other nations do indede <|s>o
moche e<|s>teme it/ and that as well ch<~r>i<|s>tened as hethen/ that impute I
rather vnto the <|s>ecret fo<~r>ce of this ternatius numerus/ whiche thoughe
it hath here <|s>ome thyng appered concernyng their p<~r>onounciation/ it <|s>hal
moche mo<~r>e euidently here con<|s>equently appere in all the chefe groun-
des of they<~r> analogie/ whiche they haue muented p<~r>oper and peculyer
to them<|s>elfe/ fo<~r> thoughe the great nomb<~r>e of they<~r> vocables be euident-
ly decyued forth of latin/ and that in dede they lerned at the fy<~r><|s>t with
the latin wo<~r>des the latin analogie/ and in many thinges yet do folowe
them/ as <|s>hall here con<|s>equently appere/ yet is they<~r> analogie nowe at
the<|s>e dayes farre different from them/ as I <|s>hall here al<|s>o next folowyng
declare.
The introductyon of the Authour
to his <|s>econde boke.
THe frenche men v<|s>e onely .xxiii. letters/ <|s>uche
and the <|s>ame whiche the latines haue/ fo<~r> H/ with them is
nat onely a <|s>ygne of a<|s>piration/ but al<|s>o hath often tymes
the <|s>trenght and poer of a con<|s>onant/ as I declare in the
xxxiii. chapiter of my fy<~r><|s>t boke/ and howe they ofte tymes
w<~r>ite H at the begynnyng of they<~r> wo<~r>des fo<~r> kepyng of trewe o<~r>tho-
graphie/ and yet <|s>ounde hym nat/ I haue in the <|s>ame boke declared in
the .xx. chapiter where al<|s>o I <|s>hewe in what wo<~r>des of the frenche tong
H/ hath his a<|s>piration/ and howe <|s>eldome the frenche tong v<|s>eth nowe
this letter K/ I declare in the .xxxv. chapiter of the <|s>ame boke. The<|s>e
xxiii. letters be deuyded into th<~r>e dyuers <|s>o<~r>tes/ fo<~r> be<|s>ydes they<~r> vo-
welles they<~r> con<|s>onantes be deuyded in to mutes and liquides o<~r> <|s>emi
vocalles/ whiche con<|s>onantes haue in the frenche tong dyuers maners
of <|s>oundyng/ lyke as I declare of euery of them particulerly in my fy<~r><|s>t
boke after they<~r> o<~r>der. But in the namyng of the <|s>ayd con<|s>onantes the
frenche men diffre from the latin tong/ fo<~r> where as the latines in <|s>oun-
dynge of the mutes begyn with the letters <|s>elfe/ and ende in E/ <|s>ayng/
Be/Ce/De.&c. the frenche men in the <|s>tede of E/ <|s>ounde Dy/ and name
them Boy/ Coy/ Doy.&c. and where as the latines in <|s>oundyng of they<~r>
liquides o<~r> <|s>emi vowelles begyn with E/ and ende with them <|s>aynge
El/Em/En/ the frenche men double the liquide o<~r> <|s>emi vocale/ & adde
al<|s>o an other E/ and name them E<|s><|s>e/ Emme/ Enne/ geuyng the ac-
cent vpon the fy<~r><|s>t E/ and at the la<|s>t E/ dep<~r>e<|s><|s>yng they<~r> voyce/ but in
the<|s>e thynges it is nat greatly materiall to be to curyous/ and therfo<~r>e
B.iii. I pa<|s><|s>e
I pa<|s><|s>e ouer to <|s>peke tho<~r>owly there of .Of the<|s>e letters/ lyke as it is in
all tonges/ be made <|s>yllables of <|s>yllables/ wo<~r>des of wo<~r>des/ <|s>entences o<~r> rea<|s>ons.
Of the .ix. partes of rea<|s>on in a generalte.
Partes of rea<|s>on/ if we <|s>hall here in take example of the Romayns/
they haue th<~r>y<|s>e .iii. fo<~r> be<|s>ydes the .viii. partes of <|s>peche commen betwe-
ne them and the latines/ that is to <|s>ay/ Nowne/ p<~r>onowne/ verbe/ par-
ticiple/ p<~r>epo<|s>ytion/ aduerbe/ coniunction/ and interiection/ they haue
al<|s>o a nynth part of rea<|s>on whiche I call article/ bo<~r>owyng the name of
the Grekes.
Of the Article.
Articles they haue but twayne/ Vng/ and Le/ & they haue but two
accidentes/ as I declare in the begynnyng of the <|s>econde boke.
Of the nowne <|s>ub<|s>tantiue.
Nownes <|s>ub<|s>tantiues haue the chefe accidents/ gender/ nomb<~r>e/
and par<|s>on.
To knowe the gender of <|s>ub<|s>tantiues.
Genders they haue th<~r>e/ the ma<|s>culyn/ feminyn/ and the commyn both
to the ma<|s>culyne and femenyn. Cau<|s>es whiche moue them to v<|s>e a <|s>ub-
<|s>tantiue of the ma<|s>culyne gender be th<~r>e/ <|s>ygnifycation/ termination/
and commyng out of a latin nowne of the newter gender endyng in vm/
Diuer<|s>ytes of <|s>ygnifications/ whiche moue them to make a <|s>ub<|s>tantyue
of the ma<|s>culyne gender/ be of thre <|s>o<~r>tes/ fo<~r> if the <|s>ub<|s>tantyue betoken
any name belongyng onely to man/ o<~r> be the name of any he bee<|s>t/ o<~r> be the
name of any tree/ they v<|s>e all <|s>uche <|s>ub<|s>tantyues onely of the ma<|s>culyne
gender/ as Roy/ cheual/ che<|s>ne. Terminations whiche moue them to
v<|s>e a <|s>ub<|s>tantyue of the ma<|s>culyne gender be in a generalte all/ <|s>auyng
onely C/ <|s>o that if a <|s>ub<|s>tantiue in the frenche tong ende in any vowell/
diphthong/ o<~r> con<|s>onant/ except onely E/ he <|s>halbe of the m<|s>culyne gen
der/ and the exceptions be but fewe as appereth in the <|s>econde boke/ but
chefly in the thy<~r>de/ and yet thoughe they<~r> <|s>ub<|s>tantyue ende in E/ if he
come out of a latin <|come out of a latin <|s>ub<|s>tantyue endyng in vm/ they v<|s>e hym al<|s>o of the ma<|s>-
culyne gender as/ Lon<|s>ife/ edifice/ domicile/ be v<|s>ed with them as ma<|s>-
culynes fo<~r> they come of Edificium/ confilium/ domicilium/ and <|s>o of
<|s>uche lyke. Sygnifycations whiche moue them to make a <|s>ub<|s>tantiue
of the feminym gender/ be al<|s>o of th<~r>e <|s>o<~r>tes/ fo<~r> if a <|s>ub<|s>tantyue betoken
any name that belongeth onely to women/ o<~r> be the name of any <|s>he bee<|s>t/
o<~r> the
o<~r> the name of any frute/ they v<|s>e euer all <|s>uche <|s>ub<|s>tantiues of the femi-
nyn gender/ as Royne/ iument/ poy<~r>e/ Terminations whiche moue them
to make a <|s>ub<|s>tantyue of the feminyn gender/ is chefely E/ whiche rule
is generall vnto the<|s>e th<~r>e <|s>o<~r>tes/ al<|s>o nownes/ adiectyues and parti-
ciples/ fo<~r> the feminins of all the<|s>e th<~r>e partes endein E/ as I <|s>hall here
after in they<~r> places mo<~r>e plainly declare/ but fo<~r><|s>ub<|s>tantiues this rule
hath many exceptions/ as I declare at the length in my thy<~r>deboke/ in
my annotations vpon the fy<~r><|s>t accident belongyng to<|s>ub<|s>tantiues/ Of
the commen gender I haue noted onely but <|s>yx<|s>ub<|s>tantyues in this tong
as Duefue/ adultere/ e<|s>claue/ guyde/ garde/and ho<|s>te/ as I declare in
my thy<~r>de boke.
Of the <|s>econde accident nomb<~r>e.
Nomb<~r>es if we <|s>hulde herin be curyous as the Grekes be/ they haue
al<|s>o th<~r>e/ fo<~r> be<|s>ydes the <|s>yngular nomb<~r>e and the plurell commyn be-
twene them and the latines/ they v<|s>e to exp<~r>e<|s><|s>e all <|s>uche <|s>ub<|s>tantyues
as we in our tong circumlocute by pay<~r>es/ by one onely wo<~r>de in the plu-
rel letter/ as fo<~r> a pay<~r>e of ho<|s>en/ a pay<~r>e of tong/ a pay<~r>e of <|s>pectacles/
they <|s>ay Vnes chauces/ vnes tenailles/ vnes lunettes/ as I declare in the
liii. chapiter of the thy<~r>de boke/ befo<~r>e the table of <|s>ub<|s>tantyues. But
nowe to <|s>peke of they<~r> two nomb<~r>es mo<|s>t generally v<|s>ed with them/ albe-
it that they<~r> <|s>ynguler nomb<~r>e hath a great meyny of dyuers terminations/
yet haue they excepted th<~r>e letters/ in whiche there is no <|s>ub<|s>tantyue en-
dyng in they<~r> tong/ that is to <|s>ay A/ D/ and K/ but in what letter <|s>o euer
they<~r> <|s>ynguler nomb<~r>e ende in/ fo<~r> the exp<~r>e<|s><|s>yng of they<~r> plurell nom-
b<~r>e they haue but onely th<~r>e letters S/ X/ whiche they adde to the ter-
minations of the <|s>yngular nomb<~r>e/ and <|s>o moche kepe they the<|s>e th<~r>e
onely letters to <|s>erue fo<~r> they<~r> plurell nomb<~r>es/ that if any <|s>ub<|s>tantyue
in they<~r> tong/ in his <|s>yngular nomb<~r>e ende in any of the<|s>e th<~r>e letters
S/ X/ / than is the <|s>ynguler nomb<~r>e and the plurel of all <|s>uche nownes
with them all one/ fo<~r> the mo<~r>e particuler knowledge of this matter/ re-
mittyng the lernar to the annotations vpon the <|s>econde accident belong
yng to <|s>ub<|s>tantyues in the thy<~r>de boke. Howbeit/ fo<~r> <|s>o moche as the
chefe<|s>t poynt/ whiche concerneth the kepynge of trewe congruyte in
this tong/ re<|s>teth vpon the knowledge of the gend<~r>e and nomb<~r>e of the
<|s>ub<|s>tantyuie/ fo<~r> by cau<|s>e that with hym mu<|s>t agre the adiectyue/ the -
nowne/ and the ticiple/ as I shall herafter in this introduction mo<~r>e
playnly declare whan I <|s>peke of they<~r> congruite. Be<|s>ydes all the rules
w<~r>itten vpon the<|s>e two accidentes in the <|s>ayd thy<~r>de boke/ I haue yet
al<|s>o fo<~r> the mo<~r>e farther ea<|s>yng of the lernar/ in the table of <|s>ub<|s>tantiues
after euery <|s>ub<|s>tantyue/ <|s>et fo<~r>th al<|s>o his gend<~r>e/ and the letter of his
plurell nomb<~r>e/ that he maye atones herin be <|s>ati<|s>fyed.
Of the
Of the thy<~r>de accident Par<|s>on.
Where as this tong hath th<~r>e par<|s>ones in bothe the nomb<~r>es of they<~r>
verbes/ as the latines haue. Euery <|s>ub<|s>tantyue is onely of the thy<~r>de
par<|s>on that is to <|s>ay/ whan he is nominatyue ca<|s>e to any verbe/ the ver-
be to agre with him mu<|s>t euer be of the thy<~r>de par<|s>on/ as I <|s>hall mo<~r>e
playnly declare amonge<|s>t the conco<~r>des.
Of the nowne adiectiue.
Nownes adiectiues haue al<|s>o th<~r>e chefe accidentes/ gend<~r>e/ nomb<~r>e/
and compartion.
Of the gend<~r>e of adiectiues.
Gend<~r>es/ adiectyues haue th<~r>e/ the ma<|s>culyne/ feminyn/ and commen
to the ma<|s>culyn/ and feminyn. The ma<|s>culyn gend<~r>e thoughe he haue
neuer <|s>o <|s>ond<~r>y termynations/ yet except they nat onely the th<~r>e letters A/
D/ and K/ in whiche no <|s>ub<|s>tantyue endeth/ but al<|s>o they except other
th<~r>e letters B/ P/ and / So that in the<|s>e <|s>yxe termynations endeth no
ma<|s>culyne adiectyue <|s>yngular. The feminyn gend<~r>e of all adiectyues
endeth euer in E/ fo<~r>med out of his ma<|s>culyne by addyng of E/ vnto
his la<|s>t ende/ fo<~r> the mo<~r>e particuler knowledge of this mater/ remyt-
tyng the lernar to the annotations vpon the fy<~r><|s>t accident belongynge
to adiectiues in the thy<~r>de boke/ of the commen gend<~r>e be all adiectiues/
whiche in they<~r> ma<|s>culyne gend<~r>e ende in E/ fo<~r> than is the ma<|s>culyne
and feminyn bothe one/ in this tong.
Of the accident nomb<~r>e belongyng to adiectyues.
Nomb<~r>es they haue al<|s>o twayne/ the <|s>ynguler nomb<~r>e and the plu-
rell/ In the <|s>ynguler nomb<~r>e/ nownes adiectyues haue as many <|s>ond<~r>y
termynations as nownes <|s>ub<|s>tantyues haue/ <|s>auynge that as I haue
<|s>ayd in B/ P/ and / endeth no <|s>yngular adiectyue. The plurell nom-
b<~r>e hath onely th<~r>e letters fynall S/ X/ and / added vnto the letters of
the <|s>yngular/ lyke as they fo<~r>me the plurelles of they<~r> <|s>ub<|s>tantyues. In
<|s>o moche that if any ma<|s>culyne adiectyue in his <|s>yngular nomb<~r>e ende
in S/ o<~r> X/ the <|s>yngular and plurell is all one/ and euery feminyn plu-
rell endeth in S/ added to the E/ fynall of his <|s>ynguler. Remittyng the
lernar fo<~r> the particulers herof vnto my annotations vpon the <|s>econde
accident belongyng to adiectyues in the thy<~r>de boke. Howbeit in this
thyng al<|s>o to ea<|s>e the lernar I haue in the table of adiectyues/ <|s>et fo<~r> the
the fend<~r>e and nomb<~r>e of euery adiectyue as he commeth in o<~r>der in the
table of adiectyues.
Of the comparation of adiectyues.
Adiectyues haue th<~r>e degrees of comparation/ lyke as they haue in
our tong o<~r> in latin/ but with this difference where as we & the latines
fo<~r>me
fo<~r>me our comparatiue and <|s>uperlatyues out of our po<|s>ytiues/ by ad-
dyng of certayne letters to his ende/ the frenche men kepe they<~r> adiecty-
ue euer vnchanged/ and by addyng of Plus/ befo<~r>e hym make they<~r> po-
<|s>ytiue/ and by addyng of Le plus/ o<~r> <|s>ome p<~r>onowne diriuatyue/ fo<~r>me
they<~r> <|s>uperlatiue as/ I declare in the <|s>econde boke/ in the foueth accident
belongyng to nownes adiectyues.
Of the p<~r>onownes.
Of p<~r>onownes there be th<~r>e chefe <|s>o<~r>tes/ p<~r>imityues/ deriuatyues/
and demon<|s>tratyues. P<~r>onownes p<~r>imityues be fyue/ Ie/ Tu/ Se/
Nous/ Dous/ and of them be deriued other .v. Mon/ Ton/ Son/ No<|s>tre/
Do<|s>tre all .x. wo<~r>des beyng of <|s>uche <|s>yngnifycation as they be in latin
P<~r>onownes demon<|s>tratyues/ they haue but th<~r>e Il/ Le/ and On/ o<~r>
Le??/ we may al<|s>o contayne vnder the p<~r>onowne other th<~r>e dyuers <|s>o<~r>t
relatyues/ as Qui/ o<~r> lequel/ interrogatyues/ as Qui/ and numeralles
as ??ng/ deux/ troys. &c. And I peke alo amonget the ponownes inmy <|s>econde boke of nownes pastityues and di<|s>tributyues/ as ??out/
Nul/ Aulcun/ Quelqun/ Lha<|s>cun. &.
Of the accidentes belongyng to p<~r>onownes.
P<~r>onownes haue nat onely the th<~r>e accidentes belongyng vnto <|s>ub-
<|s>tantyues/ that is to <|s>ay/ gend<~r>e/ nomb<~r>e and par<|s>on/ but al<|s>o other th<~r>e
accidentes/ ca<|s>e/ declination/ and compo<|s>ytion. But fo<~r> <|s>o moche as
the<|s>e accidentes be not generally commen vnto all p<~r>onownes/ I <|s>hall
here b<~r>efly <|s>peke of <|s>uche p<~r>onownes as be declyned in this tong/ fo<~r> the
re<|s>ydue/ remittyng the lernar to my <|s>econde boke/ the .xxxiiii. lefe where
I <|s>peke b<~r>efly of the p<~r>onownes in this tong.
Of the th<~r>e declynations of p<~r>onownes.
I fynde no maner partes of <|s>peche whiche be declyned in this tong/
that is to <|s>ay/ haue ca<|s>e/ gend<~r>e/ and nomb<~r>e/ but onely the p<~r>onownes
whiche be of th<~r>e <|s>o<~r>tes.
Of the fy<~r><|s>t declynation.
P<~r>onownes of the fy<~r><|s>t declynation be two Ie/ and Tu/ whiche be
of the commyn gend<~r>e and <|s>yngular nomb<~r>e onely & haue but th<~r>e c<|s>es/
nominatyue/ accu<|s>atyue/ and oblique/ as Ie/ me/ moy/ Tu/ te/ toy.
Of the <|s>econde declynation.
Of the <|s>econde declynation is onely Se/ whiche beyng of the commen
gend<~r>e hath both his nomb<~r>es/ but he wanteth his nominatyue ca<|s>es/
lyke as Sui/ both in latin as Se/ <|s>oy/ <|s>yngular/ and Se/ <|s>oy/ plurell.
C Of the
Of the thy<~r>de declination.
Of the thy<~r>de declination/ they haue but onely Il/ with his feminin
Elle/ who<|s>e declination/ doth moche mo<~r>e app<~r>oche towardes the par-
fection of the latin tong/ fo<~r> be<|s>ydes that they haue di<|s>tyncte gend<~r>es
and nomb<~r>es/ they haue al<|s>o .iiii. ca<|s>es <|s>ynguler and .iiii. plurell/ that
is to <|s>ay/ the nominatyue ca<|s>e/ the datyue ca<|s>e/ the accu<|s>atyue ca<|s>e/ and
the oblique ca<|s>e/ as Il luy/ le luy/ Il leur/ les eulx/ Elle luy/ la elle/
Elles leux/ les elles/ and of all the other <|s>o<~r>tes of p<~r>onownes fo<~r> the mo<~r>e
particuler knowlege of them/ remittyng the lernar to my <|s>econde boke/
but <|s>pecially to my thy<~r>de boke where I <|s>peke of the p<~r>onownes/ and
the v<|s>e of them at the length/ and <|s>hewe whiche verbes in this tong do
gouerne the datyue ca<|s>e of Il/ and Elle.
Of the verbe.
Of verbes in the frenche tong be two dyuers <|s>o<~r>tes/ fo<~r> <|s>ome be par-
<|s>onall/ and <|s>ome be impar<|s>onall/ ierbes par<|s>onall be of th<~r>e <|s>o<~r>tes/ par-
fyte/ anomales/ and defectyues/ verbes parfyte be of th<~r>e dyuers <|s>o<~r>tes/
actyues/ pa<|s><|s>yues/ & meanes/ bes actyues haue .iii. diuers coniugations.
Of the fy<~r><|s>t coniugation.
The fy<~r><|s>t is chefly ruled by E/ <|s>aure that in his diffynites he to<~r>neth
into A/ and hath his th<~r>e chefe rotes/ that is to <|s>ay his theme/ his p<~r>ete-
cit participle/ and his p<~r>e<|s>ent infynityue euer of many <|s>yllables/ and all
th<~r>e of equal <|s>yllables/ as Ie parle/ iay parle/ parler.
Of the <|s>econde coniugation.
The <|s>econde tho<~r>owe all his coniugation/ is hoolly ruled by the/ and
hath his chefe rotes al<|s>o euer of many <|s>yllables and equal/ as Ie couer-
tys/ iay conuerty/ conuerty/ and after the<|s>e two coniugations/ be ruled
mo than th<~r>e partes of foure of the parfyte verbes in this tong.
Of the thy<~r>de coniugation.
The thy<~r>de hath his theme mo<|s>t commenly in S/ and in maner euer
of one <|s>yllable/ except he be a compounde/ and than his <|s>ymple is but of
one <|s>yllable/ and his <|s>econde rote is <|s>omtyme of one <|s>yllable/ <|s>omtyme
of many/ and <|s>omtyme changeth his la<|s>t vowell/ from the vowell of the
theme/ and his thy<~r>de rote is euer of many <|s>yllables/ endyng in Re/ o<~r>
in y/ as Ie voys/ iay veu/ veoy. Ie p<~r>ens/ iay p<~r>ins/ p<~r>end<~r>e. Ie dis/ iay
dit/ dire. <|s>ymples & Ie reuoys/ iay reueu/ reueoy. Ie reprens/ iay rep<~r>ins/
rep<~r>end<~r>e. Ie redis/ iay redit/ redire/ compoundes. Coniugation is the dy-
uers alteryng of the la<|s>t ende of a theme/ by rea<|s>on of the<|s>e th<~r>e acciden-
tes/ mode/ tens/ and declination par<|s>onall.
Of the
Of the .vi. modes.
Modes/ euery parfyte verbe that .vi. the indicatyue/ imperatyue/
optaryue/ o<~r> potenciall/ the <|s>ubiunctyue/ the condicionall/ and the infy-
nityue/ of whiche the th<~r>e fy<~r><|s>t <|s>erue to make a parfyte <|s>entence by one
verbe alone/ the other th<~r>e be v<|s>ed whan a verbe is nat the p<~r>incipall verbe
in a <|s>entence/ but dependeth vpon <|s>ome other verbe/ as Ie parle/ parle/
Bien parle ie/ Doules vous que ie parle/ Si ie parle ie me repentiray/ Ie
voy?? parler.
Of the <|s>yxe Times in the modes.
In the<|s>e <|s>yxe modes be dyuers tymes/ in <|s>ome mo/ in <|s>ome fewer/ but
the indicatyue mode be<|s>ydes the th<~r>e generall di<|s>tinctions of tyme/ p<~r>e-
<|s>ent/ parfytly pa<|s>t/ and to come/ deuydeth yet the tyme pa<|s>t in to other
th<~r>e dyuers tymes/ imparfytly pa<|s>t/ indiffynitly pa<|s>t/ and mo<~r>e than
parfytly pa<|s>t.
Of the fo<~r>mation of they<~r> tymes.
The<|s>e tymes be fo<~r>med out of they<~r> themes by addyng of certayne
letters o<~r> <|s>yllables to they<~r> end/ in whiche fo<~r> the fy<~r><|s>t coniugation/ by
cau<|s>e the theme endeth in E/ if the addition begyn with a vowell the E/
fynall of the theme is taken away. The additions fynall be these <|s>yxe/
Dye/ Ay/ Ray/ E/ Se/ Roye/ and they<~r> <|s>entinfynityues haue but only
th<~r>e terminations/ Er/ Ir/ o<~r> Re/ and the indiffynite indicatyue of the
thy<~r>de coniugation endeth euer in S/ hauyng befo<~r>e S/ one of the<|s>e
th<~r>e letters I/ U/ o<~r> N/ and the p<~r>eterit participle of the <|s>ame coniuga-
tion endeth outher in S/ with I/ o<~r> N/ befo<~r>e hum/ o<~r> in one of the<|s>e
th<~r>e letters T/ U/ o<~r> y.
Of they<~r> declination par<|s>onall of they<~r> tymes.
Declination par<|s>onall <|s>erueth to <|s>hewe howe the fy<~r><|s>t par<|s>on <|s>yngu-
lar of a tens is changed by rea<|s>on of his <|s>econde and thy<~r>de par<|s>on <|s>yn-
gular/ and by rea<|s>on of his fy<~r><|s>t/ <|s>econde and thy<~r>de par<|s>ons plurell.
Of the<|s>e fyue par<|s>ons the <|s>econde <|s>yngular endeth euer in S/ the thy<~r>de
<|s>yngular <|s>omtyme in A/ <|s>omtyme in E/ but mo<|s>t commenly in T/ the
fy<~r><|s>t par<|s>on plurell endeth mo<|s>t commenly in Ons/ and <|s>omtyme in Es/
the <|s>econde plurell endeth euer in E/ and the thy<~r>de par<|s>on plurell euer
in Nt/ with E/ o<~r> O/ befo<~r>e n/ fo<~r> the particular declaration of all the<|s>e
thynges/ remyttyng the lernar to the .xxxix. leffe in the <|s>econde boke/
where I coniugate Ie parle/ and ie conuertis/ at the length/ and con<|s>e-
quently <|s>hewe the rules by example of Ie fays/ howe to coniugate the
verbes of the thy<~r>de coniugation.
Of the verbes pa<|s><|s>iyes.
Verbes pa<|s><|s>yues in the frenche tong be circumlocuted/ tho<~r>owe all
they<~r> modes/ ten<|s>es/ and declination par<|s>onall/ with the modes/ cen<|s>es/
C.ii. and par-
and par<|s>ons of Ie <|s>uis
/ put befo<~r>e they<~r> partyciples p<~r>eterit/ lyke as we
do in our tong circumlocute our verbes pa<|s><|s>yues with the modes/ ten-
<|s>es/ nomb<~r>es/ and par<|s>ons/ of I am/ and our partyciples p<~r>eterit. As
where we <|s>ay/ I am loued/ thou art loued/ he is loued/ I was loued/
thou wa<|s>t loued/ he was loued. &c. So <|s>ay they Ie <|s>uis ayme/ tu es ay